Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. lendh-   'heath, steppe, open land'

Semantic Field(s): Plain, Field, Earth, Land


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: land n open space W7
Old English: dūn-land n.neut hilly land, lit. down-land ASD
Gotland prop.n.neut lit. Goth-land LRC
Hālgo-land prop.n.neut Helgoland, district of Norway ASD
īgland n.neut island W7
Īraland prop.n.neut Ireland LRC
lond, land n.str.neut land, realm, country LRC
Scedeland prop.n.neut Danish land LRC
Swēoland prop.n.neut Sweden LRC
Middle English: island n island W7
land n land W7
Laon n France W7
lawn n lawn W7
English: auslander n alien, outsider, foreigner AHD
Bree-land prop.n highland area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Buckland prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dunland prop.n hilly area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Helgoland prop.n North Sea island W7
hinterland n region behind coast AHD/W7
island n land (smaller than continent) surrounded by water AHD/W7
land n solid part of earth's surface AHD/W7
lawn n fine sheer plain-woven cotton/linen fabric AHD/W7
Northerland prop.n lands north of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Sunlending prop.n a.k.a. Gondor in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Tookland prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
uitlander n foreigner, lit. outlander AHD
Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Woodland prop.n Sylvan Elves' realm in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: eiland n island TLL
land n land, country TLL
platteland n countryside TLL
Afrikaans: uitlander n uitlander AHD
Old High German: lant n.neut land W7
Middle High German: lant n land AHD
German: Ausländer n.masc auslander LRC
ausländisch adj foreign, alien, exotic LRC
Hinterland n.neut hinterland W7
Land n.neut land W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eyland n.neut island W7
land n.neut land LRC
landauðn n.fem depopulation LRC
landaurar n.masc land-dues (tax paid by Icelanders to king upon arrival in Norway) LRC
Icelandic: eyland n island ASD
Danish: land n land, country TLL
Swedish: land n land, country TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: land n.str.neut land, country LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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