Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leudh-   'to grow up; free; people'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow, Free (adj), People, Populace


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lēod n.masc man, person, member of tribe LRC
lēodan vb.str to grow ASD/W7
Middle English: deliveren vb to deliver W7
liberal adj liberal W7
liberty n liberty W7
libertyn n libertine W7
livery n livery W7
English: deliver vb.trans to set free AHD/W7
Léod prop.n Eorl's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
liberal adj re: liberal arts AHD/W7
liberate vb.trans to release, set at liberty AHD/W7
libertine n manumitted Roman slave AHD/W7
liberty n freedom AHD/W7
livery n allowance, apportioning of provisions AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: liode, liude n man, person ASD
Old Saxon: liodan vb to grow ASD
liudī n man, person ASD
Old Low German: liud n.masc man, person ASD
Old High German: ar-liutan, fram-liutan vb to grow ASD
liuti n man, person ASD
German: Leute people ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: lȳðir people ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: juggaláuþs n.str.masc young man LRC
liudan vb to grow ASD
Latin: liber adj free W7
liberalis, liberalis, liberale adj liberal, generous LRC
liberō, liberāre, liberāvī, liberātus vb to free, liberate W7
libertas, libertatis n.fem liberty LRC
libertinus adj/n.masc (re:) freedman W7
libertus n.masc freedman W7
Late Latin: delibero, deliberāre vb to discuss W7
Old French: delivrer vb to set free W7
livree n.fem delivery; uniform W7
livrer vb to deliver W7
Middle French: libéral adj liberal, with democratic opinions W7
liberté n.fem liberty, freedom W7
Latvian: ļaudis n.masc people LRC
Greek: eleutheros adj free W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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