Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leud-   'to lout, bend over, duck down; bent, little, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Crooked, Small, Little


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lūtan vb to lout, bend W7
lȳt n.neut small/little number LRC
lȳtel adj little LRC
lȳtlian, lȳtlode, lȳtlod vb.wk.II to lessen, diminish, make little LRC
Middle English: littel adj little W7
loiteren vb to loiter W7
louten vb to lout W7
English: little adj small, not big/tall/large AHD/W7
loiter vb.intrans to linger, delay activity with idle/aimless stops/pauses AHD/W7
lout n oaf, awkward clownish fellow AHD/W7
lout vb.intrans to bow in respect/courtesy AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: luttil adj little ASD
Old High German: luz(z)il adj little ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lūta vb to lout, bow down W7
lūtr vb.ptc bent down W7
Icelandic: lítill adj little ASD
lúta vb to lout, bow down ASD
Danish: lille adj little TLL
Swedish: liten adj little TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: leitils adj little ASD
Lithuanian: liusti vb to be sad W7
liūdnas, liūdnà adj sad LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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