Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leuk-   'to light, shine; see'

Semantic Field(s): to Light, Kindle, to Shine, Glisten, to See


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: lōchet n light(n)ing LRC
luchair n radiance LRC
Old English: lēah n.masc lea ASD/W7
lē(o)ht, līht adj light, clear ASD
lēoht, līht n.neut light ASD/W7
lēohtan vb.wk to light, shine ASD
lēoma n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
lox n.masc lynx ASD/W7
Lucifer prop.n Lucifer: the Devil symbolized by the morning star (Venus) W7
Middle English: levene n levin GED
leye n lea W7
light n light W7
lightning n lightning W7
Lucifer prop.n Lucifer: the Devil symbolized by the morning star (Venus) W7
luculent adj luculent W7
luminarye n luminary W7
luminen, limnen vb to illuminate (a manuscript) W7
luminous adj luminous W7
luna n luna W7
lunatik n lunatic W7
lustre n luster W7
once n ounce W7
English: elucidate vb to clarify via explanation AHD/W7
elucubration n night study AHD
illuminate vb.trans to supply/brighten with light AHD/W7
illustrate vb to enlighten AHD/W7
lea n pasture, grassland AHD/W7
levin n lightning GED
light, lit vb.wk to brighten, illuminate W7
light adj bright, shining, luminous LRC
light n brightness, illumination, that which makes vision possible AHD/W7
lightning n flash of light from atmospheric electric discharge AHD/W7
limbers gutters/conduits that provide passage for water to pump well AHD/W7
Limlight prop.n Rohan border river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
limn vb.trans to draw AHD/W7
link n torch used to light one's way through streets AHD/W7
lucent adj luminous, glowing with light AHD/W7
lucid adj luminous, suffused with light AHD/W7
Lucifer prop.n morning star symbolic of an angel (Satan) before his fall AHD/W7
lucifer n friction match W7
luciferin n pigment in luminescent organism providing nearly-heatless light AHD/W7
Lucina prop.n Juno, as goddess of childbirth (Roman mythology) LRC
lucubrate vb to write in scholarly fashion AHD
luculent adj lucid, clear in thought/expression AHD/W7
lumen n cavity of tubular organ (e.g. blood vessel) AHD/W7
luminary n someone notable in a chosen field AHD/W7
luminous adj shining, emitting light AHD/W7
Luna prop.n Moon goddess (Roman mythology) AHD
luna n silver W7
lunar adj re: moon AHD/W7
lunate adj crescent-shaped AHD/W7
lunatic adj insane, affected by lunacy AHD/W7
lune n crescent-shaped portion of plane/sphere AHD
lunula n small crescent-shaped marking/structure AHD
luster n lustrum AHD/W7
luster n sheen, glow of reflected light AHD/W7
lustrum n purification of Roman people after 5-year census AHD/W7
lux n unit of illumination AHD/W7
lychnis n herb with terminal cymes of mostly red/white flowers AHD/W7
lynx n wildcat with long legs/short stubby tail/often tufted ears AHD/W7
mezzaluna n crescent-shaped knife with 2 handles AHD
noctiluca n marine bioluminescent flagellates AHD/W7
ounce n snow leopard AHD/W7
pellucid adj admitting maximum light passage without diffusion/distortion AHD/W7
phillumenist n one who collects matchbooks/matchboxes AHD
relucent adj shining, reflecting light AHD/W7
sublunary adj terrestrial: situated beneath moon AHD/W7
translucent adj luminous, shining/glowing through AHD/W7
twilight n light refracted/reflected by atmosphere while sun is down AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: liacht adj/n light ASD
Dutch: licht n light LRC
lucifer n lucifer TLL
Old Saxon: lioht adj/n light ASD
liomo n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
Old High German: lioht, lieht adj/n light, candle ASD/W7
lōh n thicket W7
luchs, lohs n lynx ASD
German: Licht n.neut light ASD
licht adj light ASD
Luchs n lynx ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ljós n.neut light, lantern LRC
logi n.masc flame LRC
Old Icelandic: ljōmi n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
Icelandic: ljós n light ASD
ljóss adj light ASD
Danish: lyn n light TLL
lys n light LRC
Swedish: ljus n light LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *lauhmuni n.fem lightning GED
liuhaþ, liohaþ n light ASD
Latin: illumino, illuminare, illuminavi, illuminatus vb to enlighten, illuminate W7
illustro, illustrare, illustravi, illustratus vb to glorify, make bright W7
luceo, lucēre vb to shine W7
lucidus adj lucid W7
Lucifer n lit. Light Bringer: Venus, the morning star W7
lucifer adj light-bearing W7
Lucina n.fem Juno, as goddess of childbirth (Roman mythology) W7
luculentus adj luminous, brillant W7
lūcus n.masc grove W7
lūmen, lūminis n.neut light GED
lumino, lumināre vb to light up W7
luminosus adj luminous W7
Lūna prop.n.fem Luna LRC
lūna n.fem moon W7
lūnāris adj lunar W7
lūno, lūnāre, lūnāvī, lūnātus vb to bend like crescent W7
lūstro, lūstrāre vb to brighten, purify W7
lustrum n.neut period of 5 years W7
lux, lucis n.fem light LRC
lychnis n.fem red flower W7
lychnus n.masc lamp W7
lynx, lyncis n.fem lynx W7
noctiluca n.fem something shining by night W7
reluceo, relucēre vb to shine back W7
transluceo, translucēre vb to shine through W7
Late Latin: elucido, elucidare, elucidavi, elucidatus vb to elucidate W7
luminaria lamps, luminary W7
lūnaticus adj lunatic W7
sublūnāris adj sublunary W7
Medieval Latin: linchinus n.masc candle W7
lūna n.fem moon, luna W7
New Latin: lychnis n.fem (genus name) W7
noctiluca n.fem (genus name for) marine flagellates W7
Old French: lonce n.fem ounce W7
lumière n.fem light, opening W7
lunatique adj lunatic W7
Middle French: enluminer vb to decorate with enluminures W7
luminaire n.masc lamp W7
French: lumière n.fem light W7
lune n moon TLL
Old Italian: lustrare vb to brighten W7
lustro n.masc glow of reflected light W7
Old Prussian: luckis n block of wood LRC
Lithuanian: láukas adj having a blaze (re: horse) LRC
laũkas n.masc field LRC
Old Church Slavonic: luča, luč' n gleam, ray of light LRC
Homeric Greek: λευκός adj white; light, bright, clear LS
Greek: λευκαίνω vb to make/be(come) white LS
λύχνος n.masc lamp LS
Hittite: lukk- vb to light, ignite LRC
Classical Armenian: loys n light LRC
lucanem vb to light, ignite, burn LRC
Old Persian: raučah n day LRC
Avestan: raočah- adj bright LRC
Sanskrit: rócate vb to shine LRC
Tocharian: luk- n gleam LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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