Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leup-, and leub-, leubh-   'to lift, peel, cut/break off, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Flay, Skin, to Cut, to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lēaf n.neut leaf ASD/W7
loft n loft W7
lyft n lift W7
Middle English: aloft(e) adv aloft MEV/W7
leef n leaf W7
lift n lift W7
liften vb to lift W7
loft n loft W7
log(g)e n lodge ODE/W7
English: aloft adv in air, at/to great height AHD/W7
Goatleaf prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
goatleaf n.arch honeysuckle (in The Lay of the Honeysuckle) LRC
leaf n plant foliage AHD/W7
Leaflock prop.n Ent a.k.a. Finglas in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lift n air, sky, heavens AHD/W7
lift vb to elevate, raise from lower to higher position AHD/W7
lobby n room(s) used for waiting/passage W7
lodge n hut, cottage, rude shelter/abode AHD/W7
loft n attic, room/floor above another AHD/W7
loge n small compartment, box in theater AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: lucht n air TLL
Old High German: loub n leaf W7
louba n porch, lobby W7
louppea n hut, booth, lobby, shady/sheltered place ODE
luft n lift W7
Middle High German: loube n hall, porch; lobby, balcony ODE
German: Laub n.neut leaf LRC
Laube n.fem lobby, alcove; arbor, trellis LRC
Lift n.masc elevator LRC
Luft n.fem lift LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lopt n.neut lift; upper room LRC
lypta vb to lift, raise W7
Danish: loft n ceiling TLL
luft n lift TLL
Swedish: luft n lift TLL
Middle Latin: lobium n lobby, gallery W7
Medieval Latin: lobia, laubia n lobby ODE
Portuguese: loja n lodge ODE
Old French: loge n lodge; arbor, covered walk AHD/ODE
French: loge n loge, lodge ODE
Provençal: lotja n lodge ODE
Italian: loggia n lodge ODE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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