Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mag̑-   'to knead, press, stroke'

Semantic Field(s): to Knead, to Press, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: macian vb.wk to make, do, prepare ASD/W7
mæcca n.masc/fem match, companion ASD/W7
Middle English: macche n match W7
maken vb to make W7
mason n mason W7
masse n mass W7
English: amass vb.trans to collect, gather together AHD/W7
magma n dregs, sediment AHD/W7
make, made vb.irr.obs to act, behave, seem to begin AHD/W7
makeup n composition, constitution, how parts/ingredients are melded W7
maquillage n (facial) cosmetics AHD/W7
mason n workman skilled with stone/similar material AHD/W7
mass n quantity/aggregate of matter AHD/W7
match n person/thing equal/similar to another AHD/W7
mazaedium n fruiting body of lichen AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: makia vb to make, do ASD
Old Frankish: amasser vb to amass, assemble AHD
Dutch: maken vb to make LRC
Old Saxon: makōn vb to make, do ASD
Old High German: mahhōn, machōn vb to make, prepare ASD/W7
German: machen vb to make, do ASD
Latin: massa n.fem mass, pile W7
Old French: maçon n.masc mason W7
masse n mass W7
Middle French: amasser vb to amass, combine W7
masse n.fem amount of matter W7
French: maquillage n maquillage AHD/W7
Old Slavic: mazati vb to anoint W7
Greek: magma, magmatos n.neut thick unguent W7
maza n.fem mass, pile W7
massw vb to knead W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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