Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: maghos   'maiden, young person'

Semantic Field(s): Girl, Boy


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: macc n.masc son W7
mug n serf W7
Old English: mægden, mǣden n.neut.dim maiden ASD
mǣge n.fem kinswoman ASD
mæg(e)þ n.fem maiden, woman, wife ASD
Middle English: maide n maid W7
maiden n maiden W7
English: Entmaiden prop.n young female Ent in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
maid n maiden AHD/W7
maiden n virgin, (young) unmarried girl/woman AHD/W7
mermaid n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed woman W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: megith n maiden, woman ASD
Dutch: meid n maid, girl LRC
meisje n girl TLL
Old Saxon: magað n maiden, woman ASD
Old High German: māg n.masc kinsman KDW
magad, magatīn n maid, girl W7/ASD
māgin n.fem kinswoman KDW
Middle High German: maget(īn) n maiden ASD
German: Mädchen n maid, girl TLL
Mädel n maid, girl LRC
Magd n maid, woman ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mær n.fem maiden LRC
mǫgr n.masc boy, son; [pl.] kindred LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: magaþs n maiden ASD
magus n.str.masc boy, son LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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