Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. mē-, m-e-t-   'to measure'

Semantic Field(s): to Measure


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mǣl, māl, mēl n.neut measure; time, occasion ASD
mǣþ n.fem measure, portion ASD/W7
mēter n.neut meter ASD/W7
Middle English: commensal adj commensal W7
diametre n diameter W7
dimension n dimension W7
geometrie n geometry W7
meel n meal; appointed time W7
mensal adj mensal AHD
mesure n measure W7
meter n meter W7
-metrie n.sfx -metry W7
English: bolometer n very sensitive resistance thermometer AHD/W7
commensal adj re: those who eat together AHD/W7
commensurate adj coextensive, equal in measure/extent AHD/W7
diameter n chord passing through center of figure/body AHD/W7
dimension n extension in one direction AHD/W7
geometry n mathematics re: measurement/properties/relationships of points/lines/angles etc. AHD/W7
immense adj huge, marked by greatness in size/degree AHD/W7
isometric adj re: equality of measure AHD/W7
mahout n keeper/driver of elephant AHD/W7
maund n Indian unit of weight AHD/W7
meal n portion of food eaten at one time AHD/W7
measure n due/adequate portion AHD/W7
measure vb to govern, regulate; allot, apportion W7
mensa n table AHD
mensal adj re: (meal) table AHD/W7
mesa n isolated hill with steeply sloping sides/level top AHD/W7
-meter n.sfx instrument/means for measuring AHD/W7
meter n systematically arranged/measured rhythm in verse AHD/W7
meter n metric unit of length AHD/W7
metrical adj re: poetic meter AHD
-metry n.sfx art/science/process of measuring (something) AHD/W7
parameter n limit, qualification TLL
piecemeal adv in stages, by small amounts AHD
symmetry n balance in proportions AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: māl n time W7
meter n.neut meter ASD
Middle High German: māl n time, mealtime, occasion ASD
German: einmal adv once, lit. one time ASD
Mahl n meal, mealtime ASD
Mal n.neut time, occasion ASD
Meter n.masc meter LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: mál n time, mealtime, season ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: mēl n.str.neut time, season LRC
Latin: dimensio, dimensionis n.fem dimension, measure W7
dimetior, dimetiri, dimensus vb to measure out W7
immensus adj immeasurable W7
mēnsa n.fem mensa W7
mensura n.fem measure W7
metior, metiri, mensus vb.dep to measure W7
metrum n.neut meter, measure W7
Late Latin: commensuratus vb.ptc measured together W7
mēnsalis adj mensal W7
mensuro, mensurare, mensuravi, mensuratus vb to measure W7
Medieval Latin: commensalis adj re: banquet/eating together W7
New Latin: amenorrhea n.fem absence of menstruation W7
Spanish: mesa n.fem table W7
Old French: mesure n.fem measure W7
metre n.masc meter, measure W7
Middle French: diametre n.masc diameter W7
dimension n.fem dimension, measure W7
geometrie n.fem geometry W7
immense adj immense W7
mètre n.masc meter, measure W7
-metrie sfx measuring W7
French: mètre n.masc meter (unit in metric system) W7
Lithuanian: mẽtas n.masc time LRC
Latvian: mesties, metos, metos vb to set in LRC
Greek: geōmetrein vb to measure the earth W7
geōmetria n.fem geometry, lit. earth measurement W7
diametros n.fem diameter W7
ἔμμετρος adj metrical LRC
metrew vb to measure W7
-metria n.sfx action of measuring, measurement W7
metron n.neut meter, measure, meter W7
mēn n.masc month W7
symmetria n.fem symmetry W7
symmetros adj symmetric W7
Hindi: man n unit of weight W7
mahāwat, mahāut n keeper/driver of elephants W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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