Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. mē-, mō-, mə-   'to be intent; of strong will'

Semantic Field(s): Purpose, Intention, to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gāl-mōd adj wanton, licentious, light-minded ASD
mōd n.neut mood: mind, soul, spirit LRC
mōd-cearig adj anxious, sorrowful, lit. mood-caring LRC
mōd-wlonc adj haughty, lit. mood-proud LRC
Middle English: mood n mood: mind, soul, spirit W7
moral adj moral W7
English: Gálmód prop.n Grima's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gemutlich adj warm, amiable, congenial, comfortable AHD
gemutlichkeit n warmth, comfort, congeniality AHD
mood n feeling, emotion, state of mind AHD/W7
moral adj ethical, re: principles of right/wrong AHD/W7
morale n moral conduct/teachings/principles AHD/W7
mores fixed morally binding group customs AHD/W7
morose adj having gloomy/sullen disposition AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mōd n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
Old Saxon: gēl-mōd adj gole, light-minded ASD
mōd n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
mōd-karag adj anxious, sorrowful, lit. mood-caring ASD
Old High German: muot n mood: mind, soul, spirit W7
German: Gemüt n.neut mind, nature; feeling, disposition LRC
gemütlich adj gemutlich AHD
Gemütlichkeit n.fem gemutlichkeit AHD
Mut n.masc bravery, audacity LRC
Muth n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: möðr n wrath, grief ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: mōds n anger ASD
Latin: moralis adj re: mores/custom W7
morosus adj capricious W7
mōs, mōris n.masc mores, custom LRC
Middle French: moral adj according to custom W7
French: moral adj moral W7
morale n.fem moral lesson of story W7
Greek: Μοῦσα n.fem Muse LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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