Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. med-   'to mete, allot; medicate, give advice'

Semantic Field(s): to Measure, to Explain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣmetta, æmta, emta n.masc rest, leisure W7/ASD
ǣmettig, æm(e)tig, æmteg, em(e)tig adj vacant, unoccupied, unmarried W7/ASD
gemǣte adj meet W7
metan vb to mete W7
metod n.masc creator LRC
-metta sfx empty W7
mōtan vb.mod.ptpr must, may, be allowed W7
Middle English: commodious adj commodious W7
commoditee n commodity W7
empty adj empty W7
immoderat adj immoderate W7
medicine n medicine W7
mete adj meet W7
meten vb to mete W7
moderate adj moderate W7
modicum n modicum W7
moede n mode W7
mold n mold W7
moten vb.mod must, may, be allowed W7
remedie n remedy W7
English: accommodate vb to adapt, make fit/suitable AHD/W7
commode n woman's ornate cap (popular ca. 17th-18th centuries) AHD/W7
commodious adj handy, convenient, serviceable AHD/W7
commodity n advantage, convenience AHD/W7
Diomedes prop.n hero of the Trojan War (Homer's Iliad) LRC
empty adj containing nothing AHD/W7
immoderate adj subject to extremes in behavior/expression AHD/W7
immodest adj not modest AHD/W7
medical adj re: physicians/practice of medicine AHD/W7
medicate vb.trans to treat medicinally AHD/W7
medicine n substance/preparation used to treat disease AHD/W7
medico n physician, medical practitioner AHD/W7
meditate vb to contemplate, reflect on/muse over AHD/W7
meet adj proper, suitable AHD/W7
mete vb.trans to measure, allot AHD/W7
metheglin n mead, beverage made of fermented honey AHD/W7
modal adj re: modality in logic/language AHD/W7
mode n arrangement of 8 diatonic notes/tones of octave according to intervals AHD/W7
mode n prevailing style/fashion of dress/behavior AHD/W7
model n set of plans for building AHD/W7
moderate adj avoiding extremes of behavior/expression, observing reasonable limits AHD/W7
modern adj contemporary, re: present/immediate past AHD/W7
modest adj re: moderate estimate of one's worth/abilities AHD/W7
modicum n small portion AHD/W7
modiolus n central bony core of cochlea AHD
modulate vb to tune to key/pitch AHD/W7
module n unit/standard of measurement AHD/W7
modulus n numerical constant/coefficient expressing degree to which property is present AHD/W7
mold n type, distinctive nature/character AHD/W7
mote vb.aux may AHD/W7
moulage n (taking of) impression used as evidence in criminal investigation AHD/W7
must vb.aux to be commanded/requested to AHD/W7
mutchkin n Scotch unit of liquid measure AHD/W7
remedy n medicine/application to cure/relieve disease/symptoms AHD/W7
Scots English: muchekyn n mutchkin W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: meta vb to mete ASD
mōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
Dutch: mode n mode: fashion TLL
moet vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
Old Saxon: mōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
Old Low German: metan vb to mete ASD
Old High German: ge-māzer adj meet ASD
mez(z)an vb to mete W7/ASD
muozan vb.mod.ptpr must, have to, be allowed to W7
German: gemäss prep according to TLL
messen vb to mete ASD
Mode n.fem mode: fashion TLL
muss vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
müssen vb.mod must LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mjǫtuðr n.masc dispenser of fate LRC
Icelandic: meta vb to mete ASD
Danish: mode n mode: fashion TLL
Swedish: mod n mode: fashion TLL
måste vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gamōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
mitan vb to mete ASD
mitōn vb.wk.II to think, consider LRC
Latin: accommodo, accommodare vb to fit, adjust, accommodate AHD/CLD
commoditas, commoditatis n.fem proportion, kindness, convenience W7
commodum n.neut commodity, opportunity W7
commodus adj friendly, convenient W7
Diomedes n.masc Diomedes W7
immoderatus adj immoderate, without measure W7
immodestus adj vain, immodest, extravagant W7
medeor, medēri vb.dep to heal W7
medicina n.fem medicine W7
medicinus adj of a physician W7
medico, medicare, medicavi, medicatus vb to heal W7
medicus n.masc physician W7
meditor, meditāri, meditātus vb.dep to meditate W7
moderō, moderāre, moderāvī, moderātus vb to moderate W7
modestus adj modest, convenable W7
modicus, modica, modicum adj moderate W7
modo adv in this measure W7
modulor, modulari, modulatus vb.dep to play, sing W7
modulus n.masc small measure, rhythm W7
modus, modi n.masc kind, manner; measure, musical mode LRC
remedium n.neut cure, remedy W7
Vulgar Latin: modellus n.masc small measure W7
Late Latin: medicalis adj of medicine W7
modernus adj of the present W7
Medieval Latin: commodiosus adj convenient W7
modalis adj modal W7
New Latin: modulus n.masc modulus W7
Spanish: médico n.masc physician W7
Old French: medicine n.fem medicine W7
modle n.fem mold W7
Anglo-French: remedie n.masc remedy W7
Middle French: commodieux adj commodious W7
commodité n.fem commodity W7
modelle n.masc model, measure W7
moulage n.masc moulage W7
mouler vb to mold W7
French: commode adj convenient W7
médical adj medical W7
mode n.fem fashion W7
moulage n.masc decoration made by moulding W7
Old Italian: modello n.masc model, measure W7
Italian: mèdico n.masc physician W7
Greek: Diomēdēs prop.n.masc Diomedes W7
Μῆδος prop.n.masc Mede LRC
Avestan: mad- n healer W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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