Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)-   'big, much, great, major, mega-'

Semantic Field(s): Big, Large, Great


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: magister, mægister n.masc master, leader ASD/W7
micel, mycel adj/adv mickle LRC
Middle English: amaistrien vb to master MEV
magistrat n magistrate W7
magnate n magnate W7
magnifien vb to magnify W7
magnitude n magnitude W7
maieste n majesty W7
maiour adj major W7
maire n mayor W7
maistresse n mistress W7
master n master W7
maxime n maxim W7
May prop.n May W7
mikel, michel adj mickle W7
muchel, muche adj much, large W7
English: acromegaly n chronic hyperpituitarism (enlargement of feet/hands) AHD/W7
cardiomegaly n abnormal heart enlargement AHD
maestoso adj stately, majestic AHD/W7
maestro n master (in art/music) AHD/W7
magisterial adj authoritative, re: characteristics of master/teacher AHD/W7
magistral adj magisterial, re: master AHD/W7
magistrate n official charged with administration of laws AHD/W7
magnate n person of rank/power/influence/distinction AHD/W7
magnific adj magnificent AHD/W7
magnificent adj great in deed/place AHD/W7
magnifico n nobleman of Venice AHD/W7
magnify vb to laud, extol AHD/W7
magniloquent adj grandiloquent, lofty/extravagant in speech AHD
magnitude n greatness of character/position AHD/W7
magnum n large wine bottle (ca. 2/5 gallon) AHD/W7
maharaja(h) n king/prince in India AHD
maharani, maharanee n maharajah's wife AHD
maharishi n teacher of mysticism/spiritual knowledge (Hinduism) AHD
mahatma n person revered for wisdom/selflessness/high-mindedness AHD/W7
majesty n sovereign power/dignity/authority AHD/W7
major adj greater in rank/dignity, interest/importance AHD/W7
major-domo n head butler/steward in noble's household AHD
majority n more than half, greater part/number AHD
majuscule n large (e.g. capital) letter AHD/W7
master n male leader/teacher AHD/W7
master vb to control, overcome, become master W7
maxim n general truth, rule of conduct, fundamental principle AHD/W7
maximum n greatest value/quantity attained/attainable AHD/W7
May prop.n 5th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
mayor n nominal head/chief executive of city/borough AHD/W7
mega- pfx great, large AHD/W7
megal(o)- pfx great, exaggerated in size/greatness AHD
megalocardia n cardiomegaly AHD
megalopolis n region of large adjacent cities AHD
Meistersinger prop.n master of 14th-16th century German guild cultivating traditions of medieval Minnesingers W7
mickle adj/adv much, great; very AHD/W7
mister n sir, master, man without title AHD/W7
mistral n strong cold dry north(west) wind AHD/W7
mistress n woman with power/ownership/authority AHD/W7
much adj great in amount/degree/extent/quantity AHD/W7
omega n last letter in Greek alphabet AHD
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: mikil adj mickle ASD
Old High German: mihhil, michil adj mickle ASD/W7
Middle High German: meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger, lit. master-singer W7
German: Meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mjǫk adj/adv much; very LRC
Icelandic: mikill adj mickle ASD
Danish: megen adj mickle TLL
Swedish: mycken adj mickle TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: mikilei n.wk.fem greatness LRC
mikils adj mickle LRC
Latin: magis adv more LRC
magister, magistri n.masc master, professor W7
magistralis adj of a master/professor W7
magistratus n.masc magistracy, magistrate W7
magnifico, magnificare vb to magnify W7
magnificus adj magnificent, noble in character W7
magnitudo, magnitudinis n.fem size, greatness LRC
magnus, magna, magnum adj large, great LRC
Maia prop.n.fem Roman goddess W7
Maius prop.n.masc May LRC
majestas, majestatis n.fem majesty W7
major, maior adj.comp major, larger W7
majusculus adj rather large (diminutive) W7
maximus, maxima, maximum adj.sup/n greatest; greatest/highest thing W7
Late Latin: magister n.masc master, professor W7
magisterialis adj re: authority W7
magisterium n.neut office of a master W7
magistralis adj of the master/professor W7
magnates n.masc magnate W7
Portuguese: mas conj but TLL
Spanish: mas conj but TLL
Old French: amaistrier vb to master MEV
mai n.masc May W7
maire n.masc mayor, headmaster W7
maistre n.masc master W7
maistresse n.fem mistress W7
majesté n.fem majesty W7
Middle French: magnifier vb to magnify, make larger W7
magnifique adj magnificent W7
maistresse n.fem mistress W7
maxime n.fem maxim, saying W7
French: acromégalie n.fem acromegaly W7
mais conj but TLL
majuscule adj capital W7
mistral n.masc mistral R1/W7
Provençal: mistral adj masterful W7
Italian: ma conj but TLL
maestà n.fem majesty W7
maestoso adj majestic, stately CID/W7
maèstro n.masc master, teacher W7
magnifico adj magnificent W7
Greek: μεγάθης n.fem height LRC
μεγᾰλεῖος adj mighty, splendid, magnificent LRC
μεγάλος adj great LRC
μεγάλως adv greatly LRC
μέγᾰς adj big, tall, great LRC
μέγεθος n.neut size LRC
Sanskrit: mahant adj great W7
mahātman adj great-souled W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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