Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. mei-   'to mure, repair, strengthen; pole'

Semantic Field(s): to Do, Make, Beam


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mǣran, māran vb.wk to declare, make known; fix/mark meres ASD/OED
mǣre n.neut mere ASD/W7
Middle English: me(a)ren vb to fix/mark meres OED
mere n mere W7
muren vb to mure W7
English: ammunition n projectiles fired from weapons AHD/W7
immure vb.trans to enclose within walls AHD/W7
mere n border, landmark, boundary AHD/W7
Mering prop.n Rohan/Gondor stream in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
mete n boundary AHD/W7
munition n defense, rampart AHD/W7
mural adj re: wall AHD/W7
mural n mural painting W7
mure vb.trans to immure AHD/W7
praemunire n offense against English Crown AHD/W7
premunition n advance provision of protection AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: muur n wall TLL
Old Saxon: mārian vb to declare, make known ASD
Old High German: mārian vb to declare, make known ASD
mūra n wall KDW
German: Mauer n wall TLL
North Germanic  
Icelandic: mæra vb to declare, make known ASD
mærr n mere, border land ASD
Danish: mur n wall TLL
Swedish: mur n wall TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: mērjan vb to proclaim, announce ASD
Latin: meta n.fem pyramid used as turning post W7
moenia, moenium n.neut wall(s) LRC
munimentum, munimenti n.neut defense LRC
mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītus vb to wall, fortify W7
munitio, munitionis n.fem fortification W7
muralis adj mural W7
mūrus, mūrī n.masc (city) wall LRC
praemunio, praemunire, praemunivi, praemunitus vb to fortify in advance W7
praemunitio, praemunitionis n.fem premunition W7
Late Latin: muro, murāre vb to mure W7
Medieval Latin: immurō, immurāre vb to immure W7
praemunio, praemunire vb to fortify W7
Anglo-French: mete n.masc mete W7
Middle French: amunition n.fem ammunition W7
munition n.fem munition W7
murer vb to mure W7
French: mur n wall TLL
Old Church Slavonic: město n.neut place LRC
Albanian: mur n wall LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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