Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mei-   'to change, mutate, exchange'

Semantic Field(s): to Change, to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bimūtian vb to exchange for W7
gemǣne adj mean, common, general, universal W7
Middle English: azimut n azimuth AHD
commun adj common W7
communen vb to commune, administer Communion W7
excommunicaten vb to excommunicate W7
(i)mene adj mean, common, general, universal W7
mewe n mew W7
mouten vb to molt W7
mutual adj mutual W7
permuten vb to permute W7
senith n zenith AHD
English: azimuth n horizontal angle between object and reference point AHD
common adj public, re: community at large AHD/W7
commune n smallest administrative unit of country (esp. in Europe) AHD/W7
commune vb.intrans to converse; receive Communion AHD/W7
communicate vb to share AHD/W7
communion n act/instance of sharing W7
communism n political theory advocating private property elimination AHD/W7
emigrate vb.intrans to leave abode/country for life/residence elsewhere AHD/W7
excommunicate vb.trans to deprive of communication AHD/W7
immune adj free, exempt AHD/W7
incommunicado adv without means of communication AHD/W7
mean adj humble, lacking eminence/distinction AHD/W7
mew n coop, cage for hawks (esp. when molting) AHD/W7
mew vb to molt, cast feathers ODE
mews stables built around open court ODE
mo(u)lt vb to shed outer layer periodically AHD/W7
munificent adj generous, liberal in giving AHD
mutate vb to undergo change AHD/W7
mutual adj given/received in equal amounts AHD/W7
permute vb.trans to change order/arrangement of AHD/W7
remuda n herd of horses available for day AHD/W7
remunerate vb.trans to pay equivalent for AHD/W7
transmute vb to convert, change/alter in form/nature/appearance AHD/W7
zenith n point in sky directly above observer AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ge-mēne adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Old Saxon: gi-mēni adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Old High German: gi-meini, ga-meini adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD/W7
German: gemein adj mean, cruel, common LRC
mutieren vb to mutate LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mein n.neut harm, hurt, pain, injury; plague, disease LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-mains adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Latin: commūnia common things W7
commūnicō, commūnicāre, commūnicāvī, commūnicātus vb to impart, participate W7
commūnis adj common W7
ēmīgrō, ēmīgrāre, ēmīgrāvī, ēmīgrātus vb to emigrate W7
immūnis adj free of obligations W7
mīgro, mīgrāre vb to migrate W7
mūnerō, mūnerāre vb to give W7
mūnus, mūneris n.neut official charge, service, obligation W7
mūto, mūtāre, mūtāvī, mūtātus vb to change W7
mūtuus adj lent, borrowed, mutual W7
permūto, permūtāre vb to exchange, interchange W7
remūnerō, remūnerāre, remūnerāvī, remūnerātus vb to recompense W7
sēmita n.fem footpath, narrow way CLD
Late Latin: commūnicō, communicāre vb to commune, communicate W7
excommūnico, excommūnicāre, excommūnicāvī, excommūnicātus vb to excommunicate W7
Medieval Latin: cenith n zenith AHD
commūnia things owned in common W7
Old Spanish: zenit n zenith, way (of the head) W7
Spanish: comunicar vb to communicate W7
incomunicado adj without means of communication W7
incomunicar vb to deprive of communication W7
muda n mew ODE
remuda n.fem exchange W7
Old French: azimut n azimuth AHD
cenith n zenith AHD
commun adj common W7
mue n mew ODE
muer vb to molt, change W7
Middle French: cenith n zenith W7
comugne n.fem commune, community W7
comunier vb to converse, administer/receive Communion W7
mue n.fem molting W7
muer vb to molt, shed horns W7
mutuel adj mutual W7
permuter vb to permute W7
French: commun adj common W7
commune n.fem commune W7
communisme n.masc communism W7
Italian: muda n mew ODE
Albanian: komunë n.fem commune, province LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at