Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mei-k̑-, and mei-g̑-?   'to mix, mash, stir'

Semantic Field(s): to Mix, Blend, to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: māx- pfx mash- W7/ASD
Middle English: admixt vb.ptc admixed W7
comixt vb.ptc commixed W7
immixte vb.ptc immixed W7
mash n mash W7
medle n medley W7
medlen vb to meddle W7
mixen vb to mix W7
pelemele adv pell-mell W7
English: admix vb.trans to blend, mingle AHD/W7
amphimixis n germ cell union in sexual reproduction AHD/W7
apomixis n reproduction involving specialized generative tissues AHD/W7
commix vb to mix, blend AHD/W7
immix vb.trans to commingle, mix intimately AHD/W7
mash n crushed malt/grain meal steeped/stirred in hot water AHD/W7
mash vb to pulp, crush, squash IEW
meddle vb to mix, mingle AHD/W7
medley n melee AHD/W7
melange n mixture of incongruous elements AHD/W7
melee n confused struggle AHD/W7
mesclun n potpourri of small young salad leaves AHD
mestizo n person of mixed blood AHD/W7
miscellaneous adj mixed, heterogeneous, consisting of diverse things/members AHD/W7
miscible adj capable of being mixed AHD/W7
mix vb to blend/combine into one mass AHD/W7
mixture n act/process/result of mixing AHD/W7
mustang n small hardy naturalized horse, lit. mixed animal AHD/W7
panmixia n random mating within breeding population AHD
pell-mell adv in mingled confusion/disorder AHD/W7
promiscuous adj consisting of heterogeneous mixture AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle High German: meisch n mash W7
German: Maische n.fem mash LRC
mischen vb to mix LRC
Mischung n.fem mixture LRC
Latin: admixtus vb.ptc mixed in W7
commisceo, commiscēre, commiscui, commixtus vb to commix W7
immisceo, immiscēre, immiscui, immixtus vb to immix W7
miscellaneus adj miscellaneous W7
miscellus adj mixed W7
misceo, miscēre, miscui, mixtus vb to mix W7
mixtura n.fem mixture W7
promiscue adv promiscuously LRC
promiscuus adj promiscuous W7
Vulgar Latin: misculo, misculare vb to meddle W7
Late Latin: mixticius adj mixed W7
Medieval Latin: mixta vb.ptc mixed W7
New Latin: amphimixis n.fem blending W7
apomixis n.fem apomixis W7
miscibilis adj miscible W7
Spanish: mesta n.fem annual cattle roundup W7
mestengo adj stray horse W7
mesteño adj strayed W7
mestizo adj.masc mixed, re: person born to Spaniard and native Latin American W7
Mexican Spanish: mestengo n.masc mustang, untamed horse W7
Old French: medler vb to mix W7
meslee n.fem melee, battle W7
mesler vb to mix W7
misture n.fem mixture W7
Middle French: medlé vb.ptc mixed W7
medlee n.fem a mix W7
medler vb to mix W7
mélange n.masc melange W7
mesler, mêler vb to mix W7
mixte adj mixed W7
mixture n.fem mixture W7
French: mélange n.masc melange W7
mêlée n.fem melee, turmoil (esp. re: battle) W7
Greek: ἀμειξία n.fem lack of intercourse LRC
μίγνῡμι vb to mix, mingle LRC
mixis n.fem act of mixing W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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