Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. mel-, also smel-, melə- : mlē-, mel-d- : ml-ed-, mel-dh-, ml-ēi- : mlī̆-, melə-k- : mlā-k-, mlēu- : mlū̆-   'to mill, grind; fine, ground'

Semantic Field(s): to Grind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: melim vb to mill, grind LRC
Middle Breton: mout n.masc wether W7
Old English: mealmiht adj sandy GED
mealmstān n.masc malmstone GED/ASD
m(e)alt n.neut malt W7/ASD
meltan vb to melt W7
me(o)lu, melo, mela, mealu n.neut meal W7/ASD
milde adj mild, gentle LRC
milte n.masc/fem melt (spleen) W7/ASD
molde n.fem mold W7/ASD
mylen n.masc mill W7/ASD
Middle English: aumal n enamel MEV
blandishen vb to blandish W7
emolument n emolument W7
enamelen vb to enamel W7
gromil n gromwell W7
maillet n mallet W7
malle n maul W7
malliable adj malleable W7
malt n malt W7
mele n meal W7
melten vb to melt W7
mild adj mild W7
milet n millet W7
mille n mill W7
milte n melt (spleen) W7
moillen vb to moil W7
mold n mold W7
motoun n mutton W7
smelt n smelt (fish) W7
English: amblygonite n basic lithium aluminum phosphate AHD/W7
amblyopia n poor vision without change in eye structure AHD/W7
amylum n starch AHD
bland adj unperturbed, characterized by smoothness/tranquility AHD/W7
blandish vb to cajole, coax with flattery AHD/W7
blenny n small elongated scaleless fish AHD/W7
blin, blini n small thick pancake AHD/W7
blintz(e) n thin rolled pancake with filling AHD/W7
chondromalacia n abnormal softening/degeneration of joint cartilage AHD
emollient adj making soft/supple AHD/W7
emolument n income in form of compensation/perquisites AHD/W7
enamel n opaque vitreous material fused to metal/ceramic surface W7
enamel vb.trans to cover/inlay with enamel AHD/W7
gromwell n plant with polished white stony nutlets AHD/W7
immolate vb.trans to offer in sacrifice AHD/W7
malleable adj subject to shaping by beating/pressure AHD/W7
malleolus n bony rounded protuberance on ankle AHD
mallet n light hammer with large barrel-shaped head AHD/W7
malleus n small bone in mammalian ear AHD/W7
malm n light loamy soil GED
malt n grain, softened in water, used in brewing/distilling AHD/W7
maltha n sticky black viscous bitumen AHD/W7
maul n large heavy hammer used to drive piles/wedges AHD/W7
meal n coarse-ground unbolted seeds of pulse/cereal grass AHD/W7
mealie n ear of corn/grain AHD
melch adj soft, mild AHD/W7
melt n spleen AHD/W7
melt vb to pass from solid to liquid state AHD/W7
meuniere adj rolled in flour then fried in butter AHD
mild adj gentle in behavior AHD/W7
miliary adj having/composed of many small lesions/projections AHD/W7
milium n small whitish lump in skin retaining oil gland secretions AHD/W7
mill n building with machinery to mill grain AHD/W7
mill vb to grind (grain into flour) LRC
millet n small-seeded annual cereal/forage grasses AHD/W7
milt n male fish reproductive glands filled with secretion AHD/W7
moil vb to make wet/dirty AHD/W7
mola n ocean sunfish AHD/W7
molar n tooth with rounded/flattened surface for grinding AHD/W7
mold n soil, soft crumbling friable earth AHD/W7
molder vb to decay, disintegrate, crumble to dust AHD
mole n work (of masonry/large stones/earth) set in sea as pier/breakwater AHD/W7
mollusk n invertebrate animal (e.g. snail/clam) with soft body enclosed in hard shell AHD/W7
mouille adj made liquid (as consonant sound) AHD/CDC
moulin n round vertical shaft in glacier cleared out by water/rock debris AHD/W7
mulch n protective covering (e.g. sawdust/compost/paper) used on lawn/ground AHD/W7
mutton n flesh of mature sheep AHD/W7
mylonite n fine-grained laminated rock AHD
ormolu n brass resembling gold, lit. ground gold AHD/W7
osteomalacia n deficiency disease, lit. bone-softness AHD
pall-mall n game with wooden ball driven by mallet AHD/W7
schmaltz n florid/sentimental art/music AHD/W7
smalt n deep blue pigment used as ceramic color AHD/W7
smelt n small salmonoid fish AHD/W7
smelt vb.trans to melt/fuse (ore) with accompanying chemical change AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: milde adj mild ASD
milte n.fem spleen ASD
Middle Dutch: milte n milt, spleen W7
Dutch: molen n mill ASD
molm n dust GED
Afrikaans: mielie n mealie AHD
Old Saxon: melm n.str.masc dust GED
mildi adj mild ASD
Low German: smelten vb to smelt W7
Old High German: maglio n mallet W7
malan vb to mill, grind LRC
malz n malt W7
melm n dust GED
melo n meal W7
milti adj mild, generous ASD
mil(t)zi n.neut spleen W7/ASD
molta n mold W7
muli, mulīn n.fem mill W7/ASD
smelzan vb to melt W7
Middle High German: smalz n rendered fat W7
German: Amblygonit n amblygonite W7
mahlen vb to mill LRC
Malz n.neut malt LRC
Mehl n meal ASD
mild adj mild LRC
Milz n.fem spleen ASD
Mühle n.fem mill LRC
Mulm n.masc dust GED
Schmalz n.masc rendered fat LRC
schmelzen vb to melt LRC
Yiddish: blintse n blintze W7
shmalts n rendered fat W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: málmr n.masc metal LRC
mold n.fem mold LRC
mǫlr n moth LRC
Old Icelandic: malmr n ore, metal GED
Icelandic: malt n.neut malt ASD
mildr adj mild, munificent ASD
milti n.neut spleen ASD
mjöl n meal ASD
mold n mold ASD
mylna n mill ASD
Norwegian: smelte n whiting W7
Danish: møl n moth TLL
Swedish: malm n malm, sandy plain; ore GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: malan vb to mill, grind LRC
malma n.masc malm, sand GED
malō n moth LRC
milds adj mild ASD
mulda n mold, dust ASD
Latin: amylum n amylum AHD
blandior, blandiri vb to flatter, caress W7
blandus adj soft, sweet; mild, flattering W7
blennius n.masc a sea fish W7
emolliens, emollientis adj/vb.ptc emollient W7
emollio, emollīre vb to soften W7
emolo, emolere vb to grind up W7
emolumentum n.neut miller's fee W7
immolo, immolare, immolavi, immolatus vb to sacrifice W7
malacia n.fem softness, delicacy; calmness (of sea) W7
malleus n.masc hammer W7
miliarius adj re: millet W7
milium n.neut millet W7
mola n.fem mill, millstone W7
molaris adj re: mill W7
moles n.fem mass, exertion W7
molliō, mollīre, mollīvī, mollītum vb to soften, moderate LRC
mollis adj soft W7
Mollusca mollusk W7
molluscus n.masc soft animal W7
molo, molere vb to mill, grind W7
Vulgar Latin: mollio, molliāre vb to soften W7
Late Latin: molina n.fem mill W7
molinum n.neut millstone W7
molinus n.masc of a mill, of a millstone W7
Medieval Latin: malleabilis adj easily hammered W7
malleō, malleāre vb to hammer W7
New Latin: amblyopia n.fem amblyopia W7
malleus n.masc a bone in the internal ear W7
milium n.neut a small lump in the skin W7
mola n.fem ocean sunfish W7
Mollusca n.fem phylum name W7
Portuguese: milho n millet AHD
Old French: aumail n enamel MEV
mail n.masc maul, hammer, sledgehammer W7
maillet n.masc.dim hammer W7
malleus n.masc hammer, sledgehammer W7
munoier n.masc miller AHD
munoiere n.fem miller's wife AHD
Middle French: blandir, blandiss- vb to make white W7
enamailler vb to (paint with) enamel W7
maillet n.masc small club/hammer W7
malleable adj easily hammered W7
mil n.masc grain, millet W7
millet n.masc grain, millet W7
moillier vb to wet W7
mole n.fem mass W7
pallemaille adv pall-mall W7
smalt n.masc smalt W7
French: meunière adj meuniere, re: miller's wife AHD
mollusque n.masc mollusk W7
moulin n.masc mill W7
Old Italian: molo n.masc mole W7
Italian: pallamaglio n.masc pall-mall W7
Lithuanian: blynai n blin, blintz LRC
melù vb to mill, grind LRC
Old Church Slavonic: meljǫ vb to mill, grind LRC
mladьnьcь n.masc child LRC
Russian: blin, blini n blin W7
blinets n.dim blintz W7
Homeric Greek: μύλη n.fem (hand)mill LRC
Greek: amblygōnios adj obtuse-angled W7
amblys adj blunt W7
amblyōpia n.fem dim eyesight W7
ἄ-μῠλος adj ground by hand, lit. not mill-ground AHD/LS
μᾰλᾰκία n.fem softness, delicacy; calmness (of sea) LS
μᾰλᾰκός adj soft LS
malthakos adj soft W7
melinē n.fem millet W7
μύλη n.fem (hand)mill, millstone LRC
mōlos n.masc war; exertion; mole to enclose harbor W7
Hittite: malla vb to mill, grind, thresh LRC
Armenian: malem vb to mill, grind, crush LRC
Sanskrit: mlātá- adj soft-beaten IEW
Tocharian A: malywät vb to mill, grind, crush LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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