Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mel-   'to deceive'

Semantic Field(s): Lie, Falsehood, Deceit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: blamen vb to blame W7
blasfemen vb to blaspheme W7
dismal adj dismal W7
dismal n lit. evil days (marked unlucky on medieval calendars) W7
mal- pfx mal- W7
maladicte adj maledict AHD
malice n malice W7
English: blame vb.trans to censure, find fault with AHD/W7
blaspheme vb to speak of/address with irreverence AHD/W7
dismal adj dreadful, disastrous AHD/W7
mal- pfx bad; badly AHD
maledict adj.arch accursed AHD/W7
malefactor n one who commits legal offense AHD/W7
malefic adj baleful, having malignant influence AHD/W7
malentendu n misunderstanding AHD/W7
malevolence n spite, hatred, vicious malice AHD/W7
malevolent adj re: malevolence W7
malfeasance n wrongful conduct AHD
malice n ill will AHD/W7
markhor n large wild Himalayan goat AHD
Latin: male adv badly W7
maledictus adj/vb.ptc maledict AHD
maleficus adj wicked, mischievous, malefic W7
malitia n.fem malice, wickedness W7
malus adj bad, mean W7
Late Latin: blasphemo, blasphemāre vb to blaspheme W7
Old French: blamer vb to blame W7
mal- pfx mal- W7
mal adj/adv bad; badly W7
malice n.fem malice, evil W7
Anglo-French: dismal n.masc evil/unlucky day (on medieval calendar) W7
Middle French: mal- pfx mal- W7
French: malentendu n.masc malentendu W7
Lithuanian: mẽlas n.masc falsehood LRC
Latvian: muldēt, muldu, muldēju vb to babble, rave LRC
Greek: blasphēmein vb to blame W7
Persian: mār n snake AHD
mārkhōr n markhor, lit. snake-eater AHD
Avestan: mairya- adj treacherous AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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