Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. men-   'to rise, mount, tower'

Semantic Field(s): to Rise, Tower


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: munt n.masc mount ASD/W7
Middle English: amounten vb to amount W7
demenen vb to demean W7
eminent adj eminent W7
menable adj amenable AHD
menace n menace W7
mount n mount W7
mountain n mountain W7
mounten vb to mount W7
English: amenable adj answerable, liable to be held to account AHD/W7
amount n aggregate, total number/quantity W7
amount vb.intrans to add up AHD/W7
demean vb.trans to behave/conduct oneself in proper manner AHD/W7
eminent adj conspicuous, standing out as readily noted/perceived AHD/W7
Fire-mountain prop.n Orodruin, a.k.a. Mount Doom in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
imminent adj ready to take place AHD/W7
menace n threat, intention to inflict harm AHD/W7
menace vb to threaten, show intention to harm W7
minacious adj menacing, threatening AHD
minatorial adj minacious AHD
minatory adj minacious AHD
mons n protuberance of human body AHD
montane adj re: mountain areas AHD
monte n card game AHD/W7
monticule n little mount AHD/W7
mount n mountain, high hill AHD/W7
mount vb to increase in extent/amount AHD/W7
mountain n land mass higher than hill projecting conspicuously above surroundings AHD/W7
paramount adj of chief concern/importance AHD
promenade n leisurely walk/ride in public place for display/pleasure AHD/W7
prominent adj protuberant, projecting/standing out from line/surface AHD/W7
promontory n headland, high point of rock/land projecting into water AHD/W7
ultramontane adj re: peoples/countries beyond mountains AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: moena vb to mount, project W7
Latin: emineo, eminēre vb to stand out W7
immineo, imminēre vb to project, menace imminently W7
minacia n.fem menace W7
minaciter adv threateningly LRC
minax, minacis adj minacious W7
mineo, minēre vb to menace W7
mino, mināre vb to menace, drive away W7
minor, mināri vb.dep to menace ELD/W7
mons, montis n.masc mountain LRC
montanus adj re: mountain W7
prominens, prominentis adj important, standing out W7
promineo, prominēre vb to jut forth/forward W7
promino, promināre vb to drive forward W7
promonturium, promunturium n.neut promontory W7
Vulgar Latin: montaneus adj re: mountain W7
monto, montāre vb to climb up W7
Late Latin: monticulus n.masc.dim monticule, small heap W7
Medieval Latin: ultramontanus adj ultramontane W7
Spanish: monte n.masc mountain W7
Old French: amener vb to lead to W7
amont adv upward AHD
amont n.masc upper waters W7
amonter vb to amount W7
demener vb to conduct W7
menable adj amenable AHD
mener vb to drive, lead W7
mont n.masc mountain W7
montaigne n.fem mountain W7
Anglo-French: amenable adj amenable, nice W7
Middle French: amener vb to lead up W7
eminent adj eminent W7
menace n.fem threat W7
monter vb to climb up W7
French: mener vb to lead W7
monticule n.masc very small hill W7
promenade n.fem promenade, tour W7
promener vb to take for a walk W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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