Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. men-   'to think; mind, spiritual activity'

Semantic Field(s): to Think, Reflect, Mind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: domoiniur vb to think, believe LRC
Old English: gemynd n mind, memory W7
gemyndig, gemindig adj mindful ASD
mani(ge)an, manode, manod vb.wk.II to warn, exhort, (ad)monish ASD
myne n.masc mind ASD
Middle English: admonesten vb to admonish W7
comment n comment W7
-mancie n.sfx -mancy W7
mania n mania W7
memento n memento W7
mencioun n mention W7
mind n mind W7
mones(t)en vb to monish W7
monicioun n monition W7
monument n monument W7
musik n music W7
musycke n mosaic W7
somonen vb to summon W7
English: admonish vb.trans to indicate duties/obligations to AHD/W7
ament n indeterminate spicate inflorescence AHD/W7
amentia n insufficient mental development AHD
amnesia n loss of memory due to shock/fatigue/illness/injury/repression AHD/W7
amnesty n grant of pardon to group of individuals AHD/W7
anamnesis n reminiscence, recalling to mind AHD/W7
automatic adj largely/wholly involuntary AHD/W7
balletomane n ballet devotee AHD/W7
comment n explanatory treatise/record of events AHD/W7
dement vb to make insane, destroy mind AHD/CDC
Eumenides female chthonic deities of vengeance (Greek mythology) LRC
Evermind prop.n Rohan (grave) flower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
maenad n bacchante, woman participating in orgiastic Dionysian rites AHD/W7
-mancer n.sfx diviner LRC
-mancy n.sfx divination AHD/W7
mandarin n high public official in Chinese Empire AHD
mania n excitement shown by mental/physical hyperactivity AHD/W7
maniac adj/n (re:) madman/lunatic AHD/W7
manic adj re: mania AHD
mantic adj prophetic, re: faculty of divination AHD/W7
mantis n predatory insect AHD/W7
mantra n mystical formula of invocation/incantation (Hinduism and Buddhism) AHD/W7
memento n something serving to warn/remind AHD/W7
mental adj re: mind AHD/W7
mention n act/instance of citing/calling attention in casual/incidental manner AHD/W7
Mentor prop.n Odysseus' trusted friend/adviser AHD
mentor n wise/trusted teacher/counselor AHD
mind n memory, recollection AHD/W7
minikin n small/dainty creature AHD/W7
minnesinger n German lyric poet/musician of 12th-14th centuries AHD/W7
mnemonic adj re: assisting memory AHD/W7
Mnemosyne prop.n personification of memory, Titan daughter of Gaia/Uranus (Greek mythology) LRC
monish vb.trans to admonish AHD/W7
monition n caution, warning AHD/W7
monitor n student appointed to assist teacher AHD/W7
monument n sepulcher, burial vault AHD/W7
mosaic n surface decoration made with pieces of material forming picture/pattern AHD/W7
Muse prop.n a goddess of art/science/music/poetry (Greek mythology) AHD
museum n institution for procuring/displaying interesting objects of value AHD/W7
music n art/science of composing intelligible combinations of tones AHD/W7
Necromancer prop.n Sauron in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
necromancy n conjuration of/divination re: dead spirits AHD/W7
premonition n forewarning, previous warning/notice AHD/W7
reminisce vb to remember, indulge in reminiscence W7
reminiscent adj re: reminiscence, recalling to mind AHD/W7
rhabdomancy n divination by rods/wands AHD/W7
Simbelmynë prop.n a.k.a. Evermind in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
summon vb.trans to convoke, issue call to convene AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: monia vb to claim; monish ASD
Dutch: minneken n darling, minikin W7
Old Saxon: manōn vb to warn, suggest, monish ASD
Old High German: gimunt n.fem mind, memory ASD/W7
manōn, manēn vb to warn, suggest, monish ASD
Middle High German: minnesinger n.masc minnesinger, courtly love singer W7
German: mahnen vb to monish LRC
Minnesinger n.masc minnesinger W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: minni n memory KNW
muna vb to remember LRC
munu vb to will, be about to LRC
Icelandic: munr n mind; longing; love ASD
Swedish: minne n memory SAO
minnesvård n monument TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gamunds n.fem memory, remembrance ASD
munan vb to think LRC
muns n purpose, device, readiness ASD
Latin: admoneo, admonēre vb to warn, admonish W7
āmens, āmentis adj mad, insane, senseless AHD/CLD
āmentia n folly, madness, senselessness, amentia AHD
amnestia n amnesty AHD
commentum n.neut invention W7
comminiscor, comminiscī, commentus vb.dep to invent, imagine W7
Eumenides Eumenides W7
maenas, maenadis n.fem maenad W7
-mantia sfx divination W7
memini, meminisse vb to remember W7
mens, mentis n.fem mind LRC
mentio, mentionis n.fem a mention, act of mentioning W7
mentior, mentīri vb.dep to lie, mislead, deceive LRC
Mentōr prop.n.masc Mentor AHD/ELD
-minisci sfx remembering W7
Mnemosyne prop.n.fem Mnemosyne, personification of Memory W7
moneo, monēre, monuī, monitus vb to warn, monish W7
monitio, monitionis n.fem act of warning W7
monitor n.masc one who warns W7
monumentum n.neut memorial W7
Musa prop.n.fem Muse W7
Museum n.neut place for learned occupation W7
musica n.fem music W7
praemoneo, praemonēre, praemonuī, praemonitus vb to warn in advance W7
reminiscor, reminisci vb.dep to reminisce W7
summoneo, summonēre vb to remind secretly W7
Vulgar Latin: admonesto, admonestare vb to admonish W7
monesto, monestare vb to warn, monish W7
summoneo, summonere vb to summon W7
Late Latin: mania n.fem folly W7
maniacus adj crazy W7
mentalis adj re: mind W7
musivus adj artistic, re: muse W7
praemonitio, praemonitionis n.fem warning, premonition W7
Medieval Latin: musaicum n.neut mosaic W7
New Latin: amentum adj.neut mad W7
amnesia n.fem amnesia W7
anamnesis n.fem remembrance W7
mantis n.fem preying insect W7
Portuguese: mandarim n mandarin W7
Old French: -mancie afx divination W7
mention n.fem a mention W7
monester vb to warn, monish W7
musique n.fem music W7
somondre vb to summon W7
Middle French: admonester vb to admonish W7
monition n.fem warning W7
mosaique n.fem mosaic W7
premonition n.fem premonition W7
French: mensonge n lie, deceit, prevarication TLL
Mentor prop.n Mentor AHD
mentor n mentor AHD
Old Italian: mosaico n.masc mosaic W7
Lithuanian: manýti, mãno, mãnė vb to think LRC
minėti, mìni, minėjo vb to remember LRC
mintìs n.fem thought LRC
Old Church Slavonic: mьněti, mьnjǫ, mьniši vb to think, believe LRC
pamętь n.fem memory LRC
Albanian: mund vb.mod can, may IEW
Homeric Greek: Μέντωρ prop.n Mentor, lit. adviser ELD
Greek: amnēs(t)ia n.fem amnesia, forgetfulness W7
amnēstos adj forgotten W7
anamimnēskesthai vb to remember W7
anamnēsis n.fem remembrance W7
αὐτόματος adj by itself, self-acting LRC
δυσμένεια n.fem hate, enmity LRC
mainas, mainados n.fem maenad W7
mainomai vb to be mad W7
mania n.fem craziness W7
manikos adj crazy W7
-manteia sfx divination W7
manteia n.fem divination W7
mantikos adj of divination W7
mantis n.masc prophet, diviner W7
-matos sfx moving W7
menos n.neut spirit W7
μῆνις n.fem anger LRC
mimnēskomai vb to remember W7
mnaomai vb to remember W7
μνημεῖον n.neut tomb LRC
mnēmonikos adj of memory W7
Mnēmosynē prop.n.fem Mnemosyne W7
mnēmōn adj mindful W7
Mousa prop.n.fem Muse W7
Mouseion prop.n.neut the Museum W7
Mouseios prop.n.masc Mousaios W7
mousikē n.fem any art presided over by the Muses W7
mousikos adj re: Muses W7
Hittite: me-mai vb to speak LRC
Classical Armenian: imanam vb to learn, understand LRC
Avestan: manyeite vb to think LRC
Sanskrit: mánas n mind LRC
mantra n mantra, sacred counsel W7
mantrin n counsellor W7
má(n)yate vb to think W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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