Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. men-   'to diminish; small'

Semantic Field(s): Small, Little


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: munuc, munec n.masc monk W7/ASD
Middle English: monasterie n monastery W7
monk n monk W7
Monoceros prop.n Monoceros AHD
English: manometer n pressure gauge, instrument for measuring gas/vapor pressure AHD/W7
monad n one, unit AHD/W7
monadelphous adj re: stamens with all filaments united into single tubelike group AHD
monanthous adj bearing a single flower AHD
monastery n house for those under religious vows AHD/W7
monk n man in religious order who lives in monastery AHD/W7
mon(o)- pfx one, single AHD
Monoceros prop.n Unicorn (northern constellation) AHD
monomer n simple unpolymerized chemical compound AHD/W7
monopodium n (plant with) single main axis of growth AHD
monopsony n market with single buyer AHD
monotreme n primitive egg-laying mammal AHD
pseudomonad n rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium AHD
West Germanic  
Old High German: mengen vb to lack W7
munich n monk ASD
German: Mönch n monk LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: múnkr n monk ASD
Late Latin: monachus n.masc monk W7
monas, monadis n.fem monad W7
monasterium n.neut monastery W7
French: manomètre n.masc manometer W7
Lithuanian: meñkas, menkà adj poor LRC
Greek: manos adj sparse, loose, rare W7
monazw vb to live alone W7
μονάς adj/n.fem alone, solitary; a unit LS
monastērion n.neut hermit's cell W7
monachos adj single W7
μόνον adv alone LRC
μόνος adj alone, single LRC
μοῦνος adj alone, single LRC
Late Greek: monastērion n.neut monastery W7
Classical Armenian: manuk n child LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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