Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. meu-, meu̯ə- : mū̆-   'wet, damp; to wash; dirt, mud, mire'

Semantic Field(s): Wet, Damp, to Wash, Mud, Mire


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mos n.neut moss, marsh W7
must n must W7
Middle English: mire n mire W7
moss n moss W7
must n must W7
mustard n mustard W7
smotten, smoteren vb to soil, stain, dirty, pollute IEW
English: litmus n coloring matter from lichens AHD/W7
mire n bog, marsh AHD/W7
moss n bog, swamp AHD/W7
mother n barm, yeast, leaven IEW
mud n mire, ooze, slime, sludge IEW
must n juice of grapes/other fruit expressed before/during fermentation AHD/W7
mustard n pungent yellow powder from seeds AHD/W7
mysophobia n abnormal fear of dirt/contamination AHD
quagmire n land with soft muddy surface AHD
smut n spot, stain, soot, black matter IEW/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: mos n moss W7
most n.masc must ASD
German: Moos n.neut moss LRC
Most n.masc must ASD
Schmutz n dirt, filth TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: litmosi n herb used in dyeing W7
mosi n.masc moss LRC
mȳrr n mire W7
Icelandic: mosi n moss ASD
Danish: mose n moss, moor ASD
Swedish: mudder n mud TLL
Latin: muscus n.masc moss W7
mustum n.neut sweet unfermented wine W7
Old French: mostarde n.fem mustard W7
moust n.masc must W7
Greek: μυρίος adj countless LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at