Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. meu̯-, meu̯ə-   'to move, push away'

Semantic Field(s): to Move, to Push, Shove


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: commotion n commotion W7
mocioun n motion W7
moment n moment W7
motive n motive W7
moven vb to move W7
removen vb to remove W7
English: commotion n condition of civil unrest/insurrection AHD/W7
emotion n disturbance AHD/W7
mob n large disorderly crowd/throng AHD
mobile adj movable, able to move/be moved AHD/W7
moment n instant, minute point in/portion of time AHD/W7
momentous adj of utmost importance AHD
momentum n tendency of moving body to keep moving AHD/W7
mosso adv rapidly, with motion/animation [musical direction] AHD
motif n recurring salient schematic element in art AHD/W7
motion n proposal for action AHD/W7
motive adj moving/tending to move to act AHD/W7
motive n need/desire causing person to act AHD/W7
motor n one that imparts motion AHD/W7
move vb to proceed, go continuously from point to point AHD/W7
movement n act/instance of moving AHD
promote vb.trans to raise, advance in rank/honor/station AHD/W7
remote adj separated by long interval AHD/W7
remove vb to change station/location/position/residence of AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: meubelen furniture TLL
mouw n sleeve TLL
German: Möbel n.coll furniture TLL
North Germanic  
Danish: møbler furniture TLL
Swedish: möbler furniture TLL
Latin: commotio, commotionis n.fem violent movement W7
commōveo, commōvēre, commōvī, commōtus vb to set in motion W7
exmōveo, exmōvēre vb to move away, disturb W7
mōbilis adj moving W7
mōmentum n.neut moment, movement, particle sufficient to turn scales W7
mōtio, mōtionis n.fem movement W7
mōtor n.masc motor, one that moves W7
motus, motūs n.masc movement LRC
moveō, movēre, mōvi, mōtus vb to move LRC
promoveo, promovēre, promovī, promotus vb to move forward W7
rēmōveō, rēmōvēre, rēmōvī, rēmōtus vb to remove, move again W7
Medieval Latin: motivus adj of movement W7
New Latin: momentum n.neut impetus W7
Old French: removoir vb to move again W7
Middle French: commotion n.fem commotion W7
emotion n.fem emotion W7
emouvoir vb to stir up W7
mobile adj moving W7
moment n.masc moment W7
motif adj/n.masc moving; motive W7
motion n.fem movement W7
movoir vb to move W7
French: meuble n piece of furniture LRC
motif n.masc motif W7
Italian: mosso adj agitated LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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