Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mō-, mo-lo-   'to strain, trouble oneself'

Semantic Field(s): to Work, Toil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: molesten vb to molest W7
English: demolish vb.trans to raze, tear down AHD/W7
mole n abnormal mass in uterus AHD/W7
molecule n smallest chemical part of element/compound AHD/W7
molest vb.trans to annoy, disturb AHD/W7
Latin: demolior, demolīri vb to demolish (a building) W7
moles n.fem mass, exertion W7
molesto, molestāre vb to molest, annoy W7
molestus adj burdensome, annoying W7
molior, molīri vb.dep to construct W7
New Latin: molecula n.fem molecule W7
Middle French: molester vb to molest, annoy W7
French: démolir, demoliss- vb to demolish (a building) W7
môle n.masc mole W7
molécule n.fem molecule W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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