Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mōd- : məd-, or mād- : məd-   'to meet, approach'

Semantic Field(s): to Meet


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemōt n.neut moot, gemot, council LRC
māl, mǣl n pay, agreement W7
maðelian, maðelode, maðelod vb.wk.II to speak, address, harangue LRC
mētan, mētte, mēted vb.wk.I to meet, come upon LRC
mōt n moot W7
Middle English: maille, male n mail W7
meten vb to meet W7
moot n moot W7
English: blackmail n tribute exacted for immunity from pillage AHD/W7
Entmoot prop.n Ent gathering in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
folkmoot n general assembly of shire residents AHD/W7
gemot n Anglo-Saxon judicial/legislative assembly (before Norman conquest) AHD/W7
mail n rent, payment AHD/W7
meet, met vb to find, come into presence of AHD/W7
moot n deliberative meeting/assembly AHD/W7
Shire-moot prop.n Shire meeting in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Waymeet prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
witenagemot n council of the wise AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: mēta vb to meet, find ASD
Old Saxon: mōtian vb to meet, find ASD
Old High German: muoz n moot W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mál n.neut speech, tale; agreement, information; period of time LRC
mót n moot LRC
mæla, mælat vb to speak LRC
Icelandic: mœta vb to meet, find ASD
Danish: imod prep toward TLL
Swedish: emot prep toward TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-mōtjan vb to meet, find ASD
Classical Armenian: matč'im vb to approach LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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