Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: mreg̑hu-, mr̥g̑hu-   'brief, short'

Semantic Field(s): Short


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: merge, mirige, myrge adj merry W7
mir(i)gþ, myr(ig)þ, mirhþ n.fem mirth W7/ASD
Middle English: abbreviaten vb to abbreviate W7
abreg(g)en vb to abridge W7
brace n brace W7
bracen vb to brace W7
bref n brief W7
breff, breve adj brief, meager MEV/W7
embracen vb to embrace W7
mery adj merry W7
mirth n mirth W7
English: abbreviate vb.trans to shorten, make brief AHD/W7
abridge vb.trans to deprive AHD/W7
amphibrach n metrical foot: short/unstressed + long/stressed + short/unstressed syllables AHD/W7
brace n two of same kind AHD/W7
brace vb.arch to bind, fasten tightly W7
Bracegirdle prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bracero n Mexican laborer AHD
brachium n upper part of arm/forelimb (shoulder to elbow) AHD/W7
brachy- pfx short AHD/W7
brassard n armor to protect arm AHD/W7
brassiere n woman's close-fitting undergarment with cups for bust support AHD/W7
brief adj short (in extent/duration) AHD/W7
brief n official letter/mandate AHD/W7
brumal adj re: winter AHD
embrace vb to hug, clasp in arms AHD/W7
Merry prop.n hobbit nickname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
merry adj delightful, giving pleasure AHD/W7
mirth n gladness/gaiety shown by/accompanied with laughter AHD/W7
pretzel n brittle glazed/salted cracker AHD/W7
tribrach n metrical foot: three short syllables AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: murg adj short W7
German: Brezel n.fem pretzel W7
Latin: amphibrachys adj short at both ends W7
bracchia arms W7
bracchiatus adj having branches like arms W7
bracchium n.neut arm W7
brevis, brevis, breve adj brief W7
brūma n winter: season of shortest day AHD
brūmālis adj brumal AHD
tribrachys adj re: three arms W7
Late Latin: abbrevio, abrevio, abbreviare, abbreviavi, abbreviatus vb to abbreviate W7
Portuguese: breve adj brief TLL
Spanish: bracero n laborer, bracero AHD
brazo n arm AHD
breve adj brief TLL
Old French: abri(d)gier vb to abridge CDC
brace n.fem two arms W7
braciere n.fem arm protector W7
bras n.masc arm W7
bref adj brief, meager MEV
embracier vb to embrace W7
Middle French: abregier vb to abbreviate W7
brace n.fem two arms W7
brassal n.masc brassard W7
br(i)ef adj brief, short W7
embracer vb to embrace W7
French: brassard n.masc brassard W7
brassière n.fem brassiere W7
bref adj brief TLL
Provençal: abrevjar vb to abridge CDC
Old Italian: bracciale n.masc brassard W7
braccio n.masc arm W7
Italian: breve adj brief TLL
Greek: amphibrachys adj short at both ends W7
brachiōn n.masc arm W7
brachys, brachyos adj short W7
tribrachys adj having three short syllables W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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