Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mū-, mus-   'fly, gnat, midge, muscid, mosquito'

Semantic Field(s): Fly (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mycg(e), mygg n.fem/masc midge, mosquito ASD/W7
Middle English: migge n midge W7
English: midge n tiny 2-winged fly AHD/W7
Midgewater prop.n marshes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
mosquito n 2-winged fly with female adapted to puncture skin/suck blood AHD/W7
Mugwort prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
muscarine n quaternary ammonium base chemically related to choline AHD/W7
muscid adj/n (re:) housefly AHD
mush vb.intrans to hike/travel over snow with dog sled AHD/W7
musket n large heavy shoulder firearm AHD/W7
myiasis n fly maggot infestation AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: mug n gnat, midge TLL
Old Low German: muggia n.fem midge ASD
Old High German: mucka, mucca, mugga n.fem midge ASD/W7
German: Mücke n.fem midge ASD
Muskarin n muscarine W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mý n gnat, midge KNW
Icelandic: myg n.neut midge ASD
Danish: myg n midge ASD
Swedish: mygg(a) n gnat, midge ASD/TLL
Latin: musca n.fem fly W7
New Latin: muscaria n.fem specific epithet of fly agaric W7
myiasis n.fem fly maggot infestation W7
Spanish: mosca n.fem fly W7
mosquito n.masc mosquito W7
Middle French: mousquet n.masc musket W7
French: mouche n.fem fly W7
American French: moucher vb to blow one's nose W7
Old Italian: mosca n.fem fly W7
moschetto n.masc arrow for crossbow; musket W7
Greek: myia n.fem fly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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