Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. nĕ, nē, nei   '(negative particle: no, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): to Deny, to Refuse, Forbid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nā, nō adj/adv/conj no; not (at all); nor ASD
nā-hwæðer, nā-wðer, nā-ðor adv/conj neither...nor ASD
nā-læs adv not at all, lit. no less LRC
nān adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD/W7
nā-þing n nothing W7
nā-wiht, nā-(w)ht, nā-uht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD/W7
ne adv not LRC
nefne, næfne, nemne conj except, unless, if not ASD/GED
nō-(wi)ht pron nought, lit. no whit ASD/W7
un- priv.pfx un- ASD/W7
Middle English: annullen vb to annul W7
denyen vb to deny W7
in- priv.pfx in- W7
naught, nought pron naught/nought W7
no adv no W7
non- priv.pfx non- W7
none pron none W7
nonsuit n nonsuit W7
nor conj nor W7
not adv/pron not; nought W7
nother pron/adj neither W7
nothing pron nothing W7
un- priv.pfx un- W7
English: abnegate vb to surrender, relinquish AHD/W7
ahimsa n doctrine of not harming any living thing (Hinduism and Buddhism) AHD/W7
a(n)- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
annihilate vb.trans to nullify, destroy force/substance of AHD/W7
annul vb.trans to obliterate, reduce to nothing AHD/W7
deny vb.trans to declare untrue AHD/W7
in- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
naught, nought pron nothing, not aught AHD/W7
naughty adj.arch wicked, vicious in moral character AHD/W7
ne- pfx not TLL
nefarious adj heinous, impious, extremely wicked AHD/CDC
negate vb.trans to deny truth/existence of AHD/W7
negligee n woman's long flowing nightgown AHD/W7
negotiate vb to confer with another re: settlement AHD/W7
nihilism n idea that traditional values/beliefs are unfounded and existence is useless/senseless AHD/W7
nihility n nothingness, nonexistence AHD
nil n zero, nothing AHD/W7
nimiety n excess, redundancy AHD/W7
no adj/adv/interj not any; not; negative AHD/W7
non- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
none pron not any, lit. not one AHD/W7
nonjuror n one who refuses oath-taking AHD
nonplus n state of confusion/perplexity/bewilderment AHD
nonplus vb to bewilder, be/put at loss AHD
nonsuit n judgment against plaintiff for failure/inability to prosecute/establish case AHD/W7
nor conj (also) not AHD/W7
not adv negative: without, absence/reverse of AHD
nothing pron no thing, not any thing AHD/W7
null adj invalid, having no legal/binding force AHD/W7
nullipara n female that has borne no offspring AHD
renegade n deserter from faith/cause/allegiance AHD/W7
renege vb to deny, renounce AHD/W7
un- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nā-wet pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
ne adv not ASD
Dutch: noch conj neither, nor TLL
Old Saxon: ne, ni adv not ASD
nēn adj/pron no, none ASD
neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
Old High German: ne, ni adv not ASD/W7
nein adj not one ASD
neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
un- priv.pfx un- W7
German: nein adv/interj no LRC
Nihilismus n.masc nihilism W7
noch conj nor TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: né adv/conj not; nor LRC
Icelandic: neinn adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ni adv not LRC
Old Latin: ne- priv.pfx not W7
nesei conj unless, lit. not if AHD
nihilum n.neut nothing W7
noenum adv not W7
Latin: abnegō, abnegāre vb to refuse, abnegate AHD/ELD
dēnegō, dēnegāre vb to deny, reject ELD/W7
nē adv/conj no, not; lest, that not LRC
nec-, neg- priv.pfx no, not W7
neglego, neglegere vb to neglect W7
negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus vb to deny W7
negotior, negotiāri, negotiātus vb.dep to carry on business W7
negotium n.neut business W7
neque adv/conj neither ... nor LRC
neve conj and not, nor LRC
ni conj if not, unless LRC
nihil, nil n.neut nothing W7
nisi conj unless, lit. not if AHD
non adv not LRC
nonnullus, nonnulla, nonnullum adj some, lit. not none LRC
nullus, nulla, nullum adj/pron no, not one; none, not any LRC
Late Latin: annihilo, annihilāre, annihilāvī, annihilātus vb to reduce to nothing W7
annullō, annullāre vb to annul, cancel W7
nimietas n.fem being too much W7
Medieval Latin: renegō, renegāre, renegāvī, renegātus vb to renege, deny again W7
Portuguese: negar vb to deny, negate TLL
nem conj neither, nor TLL
Spanish: negar vb to deny, negate TLL
ni conj neither, nor TLL
renegado n.masc renegade W7
Old French: annuller vb to annul AHD
denier vb to deny W7
non interj no W7
Anglo-French: nounsuyte n.fem nonsuit W7
Middle French: in- priv.pfx in- W7
non- priv.pfx non- W7
nul adj not anyone W7
French: annuler vb to annul, cancel W7
négligé n.masc casual clothes worn inside the house W7
négliger vb to neglect W7
ni conj neither, nor TLL
nier vb to deny, negate TLL
Italian: nè conj neither, nor TLL
negare vb to deny, negate TLL
Lithuanian: ne priv.pcl not LRC
neĩ conj neither, nor LRC
niẽkas pron no one, nobody, nothing LRC
Latvian: ne priv.pcl not LRC
neviena pron nobody, no one, not a single LRC
Czech: neboh adj poor, unfortunate, lit. not rich AHD
Old Church Slavonic: ne priv.adv/pcl not; nor LRC
Greek: a(n)- priv.pfx not W7
nē- priv.pfx not W7
Sanskrit: a(n)- priv.pfx not W7
ahimsā n noninjury, doctrine of refraining from harming living beings W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
priv=privative (i.e., negative)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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