Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. nāu- : nəu- : nū-   'death; corpse'

Semantic Field(s): to Die; Dead; Death, Corpse, Body


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nē(o)d, nī(e)d n.fem need, distress, necessity; (name for) N-rune ASD/W7
Middle English: ned n need W7
English: Nár prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Narvi prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
narwhal n arctic cetacean AHD/W7
need n obligation, necessary duty AHD/W7
nudge vb.trans to touch/push gently AHD/W7
nudnik n boring pest AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nēd n need, necessity ASD
Old Saxon: nōd n need, necessity ASD
Old High German: nōt n need, distress W7
German: Narwal n.masc narwhal LRC
Not n.fem need, emergency TLL
Yiddish: nudnik n boring pest LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *naudiz n need, necessity; (name for) N-rune LRC
Old Norse: Narfi prop.n Narfi (Voluspa dwarf) ICE
nauð(r) n.fem harm, distress, poverty LRC
náhvalr n narwhal, lit. corpse-whale W7
Nár prop.n.masc Nar (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
nár n.masc corpse, body, cadaver, dead man ICE/IEW
Icelandic: nauð n need, necessity ASD
Norwegian: narhval n narwhal W7
Danish: narhval n narwhal W7
Swedish: narval n narwhal W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: nauþs n need, necessity ASD
Polish: nuda n boredom AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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