Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. nem-   'to nim, take, give, count, apportion'

Semantic Field(s): to Take, to Give, Account, Reckoning


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: nem n gift LRC
Old English: beniman, biniman vb to deprive W7/ASD
(ge)niman, (ge)nam, (ge)nāmon, (ge)numen vb.str.IV to take, seize LRC
numol adj holding much W7
Middle English: astronomie, astronemie n astronomy W7/CDC
benimen vb to deprive W7
benomen vb to benumb W7
innumerable adj innumerable W7
nimel adj nimble W7
nimen vb to take W7
nombre n number W7
nomen adj numb W7
-nomie n.sfx -nomy W7
English: anomie n situation in which norms of belief/conduct are weak/lacking AHD/W7
antinomian adj/n (re:) adherent of antinomianism AHD
antinomianism n belief that Gospel frees Christians from law AHD
antinomy n contradiction between equally valid principles/inferences AHD/W7
astronomer n one who studies stars/planets/galaxies AHD
astronomy n science of celestial bodies AHD/W7
autonomous adj independent AHD/W7
benumb vb.trans to deaden, make inactive/insensitive AHD/W7
Deuteronomy prop.n fifth book of Pentateuch: 2nd statement of law AHD/CDC
economic adj re: economy, household (management) W7
economy n management of household/private affairs (esp. expenses) AHD/W7
enumerate vb.trans to count, ascertain number of AHD/W7
innumerable adj countless, too many to be counted AHD/W7
metronome n instrument for marking time via repeated ticks AHD/W7
Nemesis prop.n goddess of retributive justice (Greek/Roman mythology) AHD/W7
nemesis n one that inflicts vengeance/retribution AHD/W7
nim vb to filch, steal AHD/W7
nimble adj lively, re: quick light movement AHD/W7
noma n spreading gangrene in lining of lips/cheeks AHD/W7
nomad n wanderer, one with no fixed residence AHD/W7
nomadic adj roaming, wandering, re: nomad W7
nome n province (ancient Egypt) AHD/W7
nomograph n graph with three coplanar curves AHD
nomology n study/discovery of general physical/logical laws AHD
nomothetic adj legislative, re: lawmaking AHD
-nomy n.sfx laws/knowledge re: (specified) field AHD/W7
numb adj devoid of sensation AHD/W7
number n total, sum/count of units AHD/W7
numeral adj re: number(s) AHD/W7
numismatic adj re: study/collection of coins/tokens/etc. AHD/W7
nummular adj oval/circular in shape (like coin) AHD/W7
nummulite n fossil foraminifer resembling coin AHD
supernumerary adj exceeding stated/prescribed number AHD/W7
taphonomy n study of fossilization AHD/CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nima, nema vb to take ASD
Dutch: nemen vb to take LRC
Old Saxon: niman vb to take ASD
Old High German: neman vb to take W7
German: Antinomie n antinomy W7
ausgenommen prep except TLL
nehmen vb to take LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: nema, nima vb to take, catch, amount to LRC
Icelandic: nema vb to take ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: arbinumja n heir LRC
niman vb.str.IV to take, receive LRC
Latin: antinomia n.fem contrary, conflict of laws W7
astronomia n.fem astronomy W7
enumero, enumerare, enumeravi, enumeratus vb to count, enumerate W7
innumerabilis adj innumerable W7
Nemesis prop.n.fem Nemesis W7
nomas, nomadis n.masc nomad, member of pastoral people W7
-nomia sfx disposition of W7
numerabilis adj numerable W7
numero, numerare vb to count W7
numerus, numeri n.masc class, number, repute LRC
numerus n.masc number W7
nummulus n.masc.dim little coin W7
nummus n.masc coin W7
Late Latin: numeralis adj re: numbers W7
supernumerarius adj supernumerary W7
Medieval Latin: Antinomus prop.n antinomian AHD
antinomus adj opposed to moral law AHD
oeconomia n.fem economy W7
New Latin: noma n.fem ulcer W7
Old French: astronomie n.fem astronomy W7
nombre n.masc number W7
-nomie sfx naming, laws governing discipline W7
Middle French: numeral adj re: numbers W7
yconomie n.fem economy W7
French: anomie n.fem lawlessness W7
numismatique n.fem study of coins W7
nummulaire adj nummular, re: coins W7
Lithuanian: namaĩ n.masc house LRC
nuomas n rent, interest LRC
Latvian: núoma vb to rent, lease LRC
Albanian: ekonomi n.fem economy LRC
ekonomik adj economic LRC
Homeric Greek: νέμεσις n just anger/censure/indignation LRC
νεμεσ(σ)άω vb to be justly angry/indignant LRC
νέμω vb to tend, manage; allot, divide, dispense LRC
Greek: anomia n.fem lawlessness W7
anomos adj lawless W7
astronomia n.fem astronomy W7
autonomos adj autonomous W7
nomas, nomados n.masc/fem nomad; animal that pastures W7
nomē n.fem ulcer W7
-nomia sfx rule, custom W7
nomimos adj customary W7
nomisma, nomismatos n.neut coin; custom W7
νόμος n.masc law, rule, custom LRC
-nomos sfx measuring, controlling W7
oikonomia n.fem economy, household management W7
oikonomos n.masc household manager W7
Avestan: nemah n loan, obligation LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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