Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: nek-(t-), nok-t-s   'night'

Semantic Field(s): Night


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: niht, næht, næct, neht, nyht n.fem night ASD
niht-scū(w)a n.masc night's cover ASD
niht-waco n.fem night-watch LRC
Middle English: equinox n equinox W7
fourtenight n fortnight W7
night n night W7
nocturne n nocturn W7
English: denigrate vb.trans to defame, cast aspersions on AHD/W7
equinox n when day and night are equally long AHD/W7
fortnight n period of 2 weeks, lit. 14 nights AHD/W7
Kristallnacht prop.n Night of Broken Glass: Nazi anti-Jewish pogrom AHD
negro n.arch person of black ethnicity AHD
niello n deep black metal alloy: sulfur with silver/copper/lead AHD/W7
nigella n (wild) fennel AHD
night n dusk-to-dawn period when no sunlight is visible AHD/W7
nightmare n incubus, evil spirit that oppresses during sleep AHD/CDC
nigrescence n process of becoming dark/black AHD/W7
nigrescent adj blackish W7
nigrosine n azine dyes related to indulines AHD/W7
noct(i)- pfx night AHD
nocto- pfx night W7
noctuid n night-flying moth AHD
noctule n reddish-brown insectivorous bat AHD
nocturn n principal division of office of matins AHD/W7
nocturnal adj re: night AHD/W7
nyctalopia n night blindness AHD
nyctitropism n tendency of plant leaves to change position at nightfall AHD
nyctophobia n fear of night/darkness AHD
streptonigrin n highly toxic antibiotic for tumors AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nacht n night ASD
Dutch: nacht n night LRC
Old Saxon: naht n night ASD
Old High German: naht n night W7
German: Kristallnacht prop.n.fem Kristallnacht, lit. crystal night AHD
Nacht n.fem night LRC
Nachtmahr n.masc nightmare IEW
Weihnachten n.neut Christmas, lit. holy nights LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: nótt n.fem night LRC
Icelandic: nātt, nōtt n night ASD
Danish: nat n night LRC
Swedish: natt n night LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: nahts n.wk.fem night LRC
Latin: aequinoctium n.neut equinox W7
denigro, denigrare, denigravi, denigratus vb to denigrate W7
nigellus adj blackish W7
niger adj black W7
nigro, nigrare vb to blacken W7
nocturnus adj of the night W7
nox, noctis n.fem night LRC
Late Latin: nocturnalis adj of the night W7
Medieval Latin: equinoxium n.neut equinox W7
Portuguese: negro adj black AHD/TLL
noite n night TLL
Spanish: negro adj black AHD/TLL
noche n night TLL
Middle French: equinoxe n.fem equinox W7
nocturne adj of the night W7
French: noir adj black AHD/TLL
nuit n night TLL
Italian: nero adj black AHD/TLL
nièllo n.masc niello, inlaid enamelwork CID/W7
notte n night TLL
Lithuanian: naktìs n.fem night LRC
Latvian: nakts n.fem night LRC
Old Church Slavonic: noštь n.fem night LRC
noštьnъ adj nocturnal LRC
Albanian: natë n.fem night IEW
Greek: νύκτωρ adv by night LRC
νύξ, νύκτος n.fem night LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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