Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: nepōt-   'nephew; grandchild'

Semantic Field(s): Nephew, Grandson, Granddaughter


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nefa n.masc nephew, stepson, grandson ASD/W7
nift n.fem niece, granddaughter KEW
Middle English: nece n niece, granddaughter W7
nevew n nephew W7
English: nephew n son of brother(-in-law) or sister(-in-law) AHD/W7
nepotism n favoritism towards family/relatives AHD/W7
niece n daughter of brother(-in-law) or sister(-in-law) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: neva n nephew, grandson, stepson ASD
Dutch: neef n.masc nephew, male cousin TLL
nicht n.fem niece, female cousin TLL
Old Saxon: neb@h%o, nevo n.masc nephew KSW
Old High German: nefo n nephew, grandson, stepson ASD
German: Neffe n.masc nephew LRC
Nichte n.fem niece LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: nipt n.fem close female relative KNW
Icelandic: nefi n nephew, kinsman ASD
Latin: nepos, nepōtis n.masc nephew, grandson CLD/W7
neptis n.fem niece, granddaughter W7
Late Latin: neptia n.fem niece, granddaughter W7
Old French: neveu n.masc nephew W7
nièce n.fem niece W7
French: népotisme n.masc nepotism W7
Italian: nepote n.masc nephew, grandchild W7
nepotismo n.masc nepotism W7
Sanskrit: napāt n grandson W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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