Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ner-   'below, under'

Semantic Field(s): Low, Deep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: norð adv north(wards) LRC
norðan adv from the north LRC
Norð-hymbre Northumbrians, Northumbria LRC
Norð-mann prop.n.masc Norwegian, lit. north-man LRC
norð-weard adj northward LRC
Norðweg prop.n.neut Norway, lit. way (leading) north LRC
Middle English: north adj/adv north W7
northerne adj northern W7
English: Norbury prop.n town a.k.a. Fornost in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Nordic adj re: Scandinavia LRC
Norse prop.n ancient Scandinavian language spoken by Vikings LRC
north adv/adj northward; re: the north AHD/W7
north n direction to left when facing east W9
Northerland prop.n lands north of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
northern adj re: region to/toward/in the north AHD/W7
Northfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
northward adv to/toward the north
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: north adv north(wards) ASD
Dutch: noord adv north W7
noorden n north TLL
noordsch adj northern W7
noorsch adj Norse, Norwegian, Scandinavian W7
Old Saxon: norð adv north(wards) ASD
Old High German: nord adv north W7
nord-man n Norwegian, lit. north-man ASD
nordrōni adj northern W7
German: Norden n.masc north LRC
nordisch adj Nordic LRC
nördlich adj northern LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: norðr n north W7
Icelandic: norðarr adv.comp further north ASD
norðast adv.sup furthest north ASD
norð-maðr n Norwegian, lit. north-man ASD
norðr-vegar Norway, lit. way (leading) north ASD
Danish: nord n north TLL
Swedish: norr n north TLL
French: nord adj/n.masc northern; north W7
nordique adj Nordic, re: the north W7
Greek: nerteros adj lower, infernal W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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