Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. od-   'hatred, disgust, odium, aversion'

Semantic Field(s): Hate (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: (e)atol, atul, atel adj dire, terrible, repulsive ASD
Middle English: anoien vb to annoy W7
noy n annoyance W7
noysome adj noisome W7
English: annoy vb to vex, disturb, irritate AHD/W7
ennui n feeling of weariness/dissatisfaction AHD/W7
noisome adj noxious, unwholesome AHD/W7
odious adj hateful, loathsome, exciting/deserving odium W7
odium n subjection to hatred/contempt/repugnance AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ötul, atall adj fierce, terrible ASD
Latin: odi, odisse vb to hate, detest W7
odium n.neut odium W7
Late Latin: inodio, inodiāre vb to make odious W7
Old French: anoi, enui n.masc annoyance W7
enuier vb to annoy W7
French: ennui n.masc boredom, trouble, annoyance, ennui W7
ennuyer vb to bore, annoy W7
Greek: odyssomai vb to be angry, feel pain W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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