Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: oid-   'to swell; strong'

Semantic Field(s): Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣt(t)or, ǣtter n.neut pus, atter ASD
āte, ǣte oats ASD/W7
āt(t)or, āt(t)er n.neut pus, atter ASD/OED/W7
āttorcoppa, āttercoppe, āt(t)orcoppe n.fem attercop, lit. venom-spider ASD/OED
Middle English: atter n atter CDC
attercop(pe) n attercop CDC
ote n oat W7
English: atter n venom, poison OED
Attercop prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
attercop n poisonous spider OED
edema n swelling, abnormal serous fluid accumulation AHD/W7
oat n type of cereal grass AHD/W7
Scots English: ettercap n attercop CDC
West Germanic  
Frisian: āat n oats ASD
Dutch: etter n.masc atter ASD
Old Saxon: ettar, ēt(t)ar n.masc atter ASD/CDC
Old High German: eitar, eitter n.neut atter ASD/CDC
Middle High German: eiten vb to burn, sting ASD
eiter n.neut atter ASD
German: Eiter n.masc pus, atter ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: át n food ASD
eitr n.neut atter LRC
Icelandic: eitr n atter CDC
Danish: edder, ædder n.neut atter ASD/CDC
æddercop, edderkop n attercop, cup of poison CDC/ICE
Swedish: etter n.neut atter ASD
New Latin: edema n.neut edema W7
Greek: oidēma n.neut edema W7
oidw vb to swell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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