Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: oi-no-, oi-u̯o-   '(demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): One


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: oīn, oen adj/nbr.card single, one (1) AHD/EIE
Irish: aon nbr.card one (1) LRC
Scots Gaelic: aon nbr.card one (1) LRC
Manx: un, nane nbr.card one (1) LRC
Welsh: un art.indef/nbr.card a, an; one (1) EIE
Old English: ǣnlic, ānlic adj only, singular, elegant ASD
ǣnlice adv only, singularly, elegantly ASD
ān adj/adv alone, single; only LRC
ān nbr.card one (1) W7
ān-boren adj only-born, only-begotten ASD
āni, ǣneg, ǣnig adj any (single) ASD
endleofan nbr.card eleven, lit. one-left W7
nān adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD/W7
ynce n.masc inch W7
Middle English: alone adj alone W7
a(n) art.indef a, an W7
anely adj/adv only MEV
anon(e) adv anon, at once, immediately MEV/W7
any, ani adj any MEV/W7
atonen vb to atone, become reconciled W7
enleven nbr.card eleven (11) W7
inch n inch W7
lone adj lone W7
(n)anes n nonce W7
none pron none W7
on(e) nbr.card one W7
ones adv once W7
ounce n ounce W7
uni- pfx uni- W7
union n union W7
unite n unity W7
uniten vb to unite W7
English: a art.indef an, one AHD/W7
alone adj lone, unique, isolated AHD/W7
an art.indef a, one AHD/W7
Anborn prop.n Ithilien ranger in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
anon adv soon, presently AHD/W7
Anson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
any adj one indiscriminately (of whatever kind) AHD/W7
atone vb to reconcile AHD/W7
coadunate adj united AHD/W7
einkorn n early cultivated single-grain wheat AHD
eleven nbr.card 11, lit. one-left AHD/W7
inch n unit of length: 1/12 foot AHD/W7
lone adj solitary, having no company AHD/W7
lonely adj lone, alone, desolate, solitary AHD
nonce n one/present/particular use/purpose/occasion AHD/W7
none pron not any, lit. not one AHD/W7
once adv one time (but no more) AHD/W7
one nbr.card 1, re: single unit/thing AHD/W7
onion n Asiatic herb (lily) with pungent edible bulb W7
only adj/adv sole, peerless; solely, merely W7
ounce n unit of weight: 1/16 pound AHD/W7
quincunx n five twelfths (of a unit) AHD/W7
triune n trinity, lit. three in one AHD/W7
uncial adj re: European book style of writing (4th-8th centuries AD) AHD/W7
uni- pfx one, single AHD/W7
union n joining/uniting multiple parts into one AHD/W7
unique adj sole, single AHD/W7
unite n old British 20-shilling gold piece AHD/W7
unite vb to assemble into single unit AHD/W7
unity n oneness, state/quality of being united AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: andlova, elleva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Frisian: alue, alve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Dutch: ui n onion TLL
Old Saxon: ellevan nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
nēn adj/pron no, none ASD
Old High German: ein art.indef/nbr.card a, an; one (1) EIE
einag adj any W7
einlif nbr.card eleven, lit. one-left W7
nein adj not one ASD
Middle High German: einlef, einlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
German: e(i)lf nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
ein art.indef/nbr.card a, an; one (1) LRC
Einkorn n.neut einkorn, lit. single-grain LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: einga adj sole, only LRC
einka adv specially, particularly IEW
einn nbr.card one (1) EIE
Icelandic: ellifu nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
neinn adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD
Danish: elleve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Swedish: elfva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ainlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
ains adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) EIE
Old Latin: oinos, oenos adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) ELD/W7
Latin: quincunx, quincuncis adj five uncia's W7
ūnā adv together, at/in same time/place LRC
uncia n.fem 1/12 of a unit: inch, ounce W7
uncialis adj inch-high W7
uni- pfx uni- W7
unicus adj unique W7
unitas, unitatis n.fem unity W7
ūnus, ūna, ūnum adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) ELD/W7
Late Latin: aduno, adunāre vb to unite W7
coaduno, coadunare, coadunavi, coadunatus vb to combine W7
ūniō, ūniōnis n.fem union, oneness; large pearl W7
unio, unīre vb to unite W7
unitus vb.ptc united W7
unus nbr.card one (1) W7
Spanish: aunque conj although TLL
Old French: unité n.fem unity W7
Middle French: unce n.fem ounce, 1/12 part W7
uni- pfx uni- W7
union n.fem union W7
French: unique adj unique, single W7
Old Prussian: ains nbr.card one (1) EIE
Lithuanian: víenas, vienà adj/pron/nbr.card each, alone; one (1) IEW
Latvian: viêns adj/pron/nbr.card each, alone; one (1) EIE
viņš pron he LRC
Old Church Slavonic: ino-rogŭ n unicorn EIE
inъ adj/pron/nbr.card (an)other; one (1) IEW
Russian: odín- pfx uni- EIE
Homeric Greek: εἷς, ἕν adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) LRC
Old Persian: aiva- adj/nbr.card alone, one (1) EIE
Avestan: aēva- nbr.card one (1) EIE
Sanskrit: éka- nbr.card one (1) W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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