Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: onogh- : ongh-, nogh-, Celtic n̥gh-, ongh-li-   'claw, (finger/toe) nail'

Semantic Field(s): Nail, Claw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: angnægl n.masc agnail, corn on toe/foot W7/ASD
næg(e)l n (finger/toe/metal) nail, claw, spear W7/ASD
wer-nægl n.masc warnel, lit. man-nail OED
Middle English: agnail n agnail W7
nail n nail W7
onix n onyx W7
sardonix n sardonyx W7
English: agnail n sore/inflammation around toenail/fingernail AHD/W7
fingernail n horny sheath protecting upper end of primate finger W7
hangnail n agnail AHD
nail n horny sheath protecting upper end of primate finger/toe AHD/W7
nail n pointed/headed metal fastener W7
onyx n parallel layers of chalcedony in different colors AHD/W7
paronychia n tissue inflammation around fingernail/toenail AHD
perionychium n tissue bordering root/sides of fingernail/toenail AHD/W7
sardonyx n onyx with parallel layers of sard AHD/W7
toenail n horny sheath protecting upper end of primate toe W7
unguiculate adj clawed, having nails/claws AHD/W7
unguis n nail, claw, hoof AHD
ungulate adj having hooves AHD/W7
ungulate n hoofed mammal AHD/W7
warnel n wart, hard skin tumor OED
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: neil n nail, toenail, fingernail ASD
Dutch: nagel n nail, toenail, fingernail TLL
Old Saxon: nagal n nail, toenail, fingernail ASD
Old High German: nagal n nail, toenail, fingernail W7
ungnagal n agnail ASD
German: Nagel n.masc nail, toenail, fingernail LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: nagl n toenail, fingernail ASD
nagli n (metal) nail ASD
Danish: negl n nail, toenail, fingernail TLL
Swedish: nagel n nail, toenail, fingernail TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-nagljan n nail, toenail, fingernail ASD
Latin: onyx, onychis n.masc/fem onyx W7
sardonyx n.masc/fem sardonyx, precious stone W7
unguiculus n.masc little nail W7
unguis n.masc nail, claw, hoof W7
ungula n.fem hoof, little nail W7
Late Latin: ungulatus adj that has a nail/hoof W7
New Latin: perionychium n.neut tissue bordering toenail/fingernail W7
unguiculatus vb.ptc with nails W7
Old French: onix n.masc onyx W7
Old Church Slavonic: noga n.fem foot LRC
Greek: onyx, onychos n.masc nail, claw, hoof W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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