Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. op-   'to opt, choose, opine, suggest'

Semantic Field(s): to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: adopten vb to adopt AHD
opinion n opinion W7
English: adopt vb.trans to take into relationship (by choice) AHD/W7
co-opt vb.trans to choose/elect as fellow member/colleague AHD/W7
opine vb to state as opinion AHD/W7
opinion n view/judgment/appraisal of particular matter AHD/W7
opt vb.intrans to make a choice AHD/W7
optative adj re: expressing wish/choice AHD
option n act of choosing AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Option n.fem option LRC
Latin: adopto, adoptāre vb to adopt W7
coopto, cooptare vb to choose, elect W7
opinio, opinionis n.fem opinion, belief W7
opīnor, opīnārī vb.dep to have an opinion W7
optio, optionis n.fem free choice W7
optō, optāre vb to opt, choose W7
Old French: adopter vb to adopt AHD
Middle French: adopter vb to adopt W7
opiner vb to have as an opinion W7
opinion n.fem opinion, point of view W7
French: opter vb to opt, choose W7
option n.fem choice W7
Greek: epiopsw vb to be about to opt/choose W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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