Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ō(u̯)i̯-om   'egg, ovum'

Semantic Field(s): Egg


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: og n egg CDC
Irish: ugh n egg CDC
Gaelic: ubh n egg CDC
Welsh: wy n egg CDC
Old English: æ(i)g n.neut egg ASD
Middle English: cokeney n lit. cock's egg W7
egge, ey(e) n egg CDC
English: caviar n roe of sturgeon/large fish AHD
cockney n spoiled child; milksop, effiminate male AHD/W7
egg n hard-shelled reproductive body AHD/W7
o(o)- pfx egg, ovum AHD/W7
oolemma n thick solid membrane around mammalian ovum AHD
oval adj egg-shaped AHD/W7
ovary n female reproductive organ AHD/W7
ovate adj oval AHD
ov(i)- pfx egg, ovum AHD
ovolo n rounded convex molding AHD/W7
ovule n outgrowth of ovary of seed plant AHD/W7
ovum n egg, macrogamete, female gamete AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: ei n egg CDC
Middle Low German: ei(g) n egg CDC
Old High German: ei n.neut egg ASD
Middle High German: ei n.neut egg ASD
German: Ei n.neut egg ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: egg n.neut egg LRC
Danish: æg n.neut egg CDC
Swedish: ägg n.neut egg ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *addjis n egg CDC
Crimean Gothic: ada n egg CDC
Latin: ōvum, ōvī n.neut egg, ovum ELD
Late Latin: ovalis adj re: egg W7
Medieval Latin: ovalis adj oval W7
New Latin: ovarium n.neut ovary W7
ovulum n.neut ovule W7
Portuguese: ôvo n egg, ovum CDC
Spanish: huevo n egg, ovum CDC
Old French: oef n egg, ovum CDC
French: œuf n egg, ovum TLL
Provençal: (u)ov n egg, ovum CDC
Italian: uovo, òvo(lo) n.masc egg, ovum W7
Homeric Greek: οἰωνός n.masc large bird, bird of prey LRC
Greek: ᾠόν n.neut egg, ovum LS
Middle Persian: khāyak n egg, caviar AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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