Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ōus- : əus- : us-   'ear'

Semantic Field(s): Ear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: eāre n.neut ear W7
Middle English: auricle n atrium; heart auricle AHD
ere n ear W7
scouten vb to scout W7
English: aural adj re: ear/hearing AHD/W7
auricle n pinna: projecting portion of ear AHD/W7
auriform adj ear-shaped AHD
auscultation n listening to sounds within organs to aid diagnosis/treatment AHD/W7
ear n vertebrate organ of hearing/equilibrium AHD/W7
myosotis n herb in borage family AHD/W7
otic adj re: region of ear AHD/W7
parotid adj re: large serous salivary gland AHD/W7
scout vb to explore area to obtain information AHD/W7
British English: ormer n sea-ear, ear-shell, Channel Islands abalone AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ar(e) n.neut ear ASD
Frisian: ær, ear(e) n ear ASD
Dutch: oor n.neut ear ASD
Old Saxon: ōra n.neut ear ASD
Old High German: ōra n.wk.neut ear W7
Middle High German: ōre n.neut ear ASD
German: Ohr n.neut ear ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eyra n.neut ear LRC
Icelandic: eyra n.neut ear ASD
Danish: øre n ear TLL
Swedish: öra n.neut ear ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: áusō n.wk.neut ear LRC
Latin: auricula n.fem external ear W7
auris n.fem ear W7
auscultatio, auscultionis n.fem act of listening W7
ausculto, auscultare, auscultavi, auscultatus vb to listen W7
myosotis n.fem mouse-ear, blue flower, forget-me-not W7
parotis n.fem tumor near the ear W7
New Latin: myosotis n.fem genus of herbs, forget-me-not W7
parotis, parotidis n.fem parotid gland W7
Portuguese: orelha n ear TLL
Spanish: oreja n ear TLL
Old French: auricle n auricle, little ear AHD
Middle French: escouter vb to listen W7
French: oreille n ear TLL
Italian: orecchio n ear TLL
Lithuanian: ausis n.fem ear ASD
Greek: myosōtis n.fem myosotis, mouse's ear W7
οὖς, ὦς n.neut ear LRC
ōtikos adj of the ears W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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