Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pā- : pə-, and pā-t- : pə-t-   'to feed, graze, pasture'

Semantic Field(s): to Pasture


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fēdan vb to feed RPN
fōda n.masc food ASD/RPN
fōd(d)or, fōd(d)er, fōddur n.neut fodder ASD/RPN
fōstor n/pfx food, feeding; foster W7
Middle English: bezear n bezoar, magic stone poison antidote AHD
compainoun n companion W7
companie n company W7
feden vb to feed W7
fodder n fodder W7
fode n food W7
forage n forage W7
forrayen vb to foray W7
foster n foster W7
furren vb to fur W7
panetrie n pantry W7
panier n pannier W7
pastour n pastor W7
pasture n pasture W7
repast n repast W7
satrap n provincial governor W7
English: antipasto n hors d'oeuvre AHD/W7
appanage n grant to dependent royal family member AHD/W7
bezoar n ruminant alimentary concretion AHD/W7
breastfeed, breastfed vb.str to feed from breast LRC
companion n comrade AHD/W7
company n fellowship, association with another AHD/W7
feed, fed vb.str to give food to AHD/W7
fodder n food for domestic animals AHD/W7
food n vital dietary material AHD/W7
forage n food for animals AHD/W7
foray vb to pillage, ravage searching for spoils AHD/W7
foster adj re: nurture/care not required by blood/legal ties AHD/W7
fourragere n braided cord AHD/W7
fur n mammal pelt thickly covered by fine soft hair LRC
fur vb to line/trim/clothe/cover with fur AHD/W7
furrier n fur dealer AHD/W7
pabulum n food (esp. in solution) AHD/W7
panada n paste of flour/bread crumbs in water/stock AHD/W7
panatela n long slender cigar AHD/W7
pannier n large basket AHD/W7
panocha n coarse Mexican sugar AHD
pantry n room/closet used to store provisions/dinnerware AHD/W7
pastern n part of equine foot extending from fetlock to coffin bone AHD/W7
pastille n aromatic paste for scenting/fumigating air AHD/W7
pastor n shepherd, herdsman AHD/W7
pasture n plants grown to feed animals AHD/W7
pasture vb to graze, browse, keep in pasture W7
penuche n fudge made with milk/cream, butter, brown sugar, nuts AHD/W7
pester vb.trans to overcrowd AHD/W7
repast n meal, something taken as food AHD/W7
satrap n provincial governor AHD/W7
Scots English: fede vb to feed ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: foda, feda vb to feed ASD
Frisian: fieden vb to feed ASD
Dutch: voeden vb to feed ASD
voeder, voēr n.neut fodder, provender ASD
Old Saxon: fōdjan, fuodjan vb to feed ASD
Low German: föde, v̈de n food ASD
foder, vo(d)er n fodder ASD
Old High German: fuotar n.neut food, fodder ASD/W7
fuotjan vb to feed ASD
Middle High German: vuoten, vüeten vb to feed ASD
vuoter n.neut fodder ASD
German: Futter n.neut fodder ASD
füttern vb to feed ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: fóðr n fodder RPN
Icelandic: fōðr n.neut fodder ASD
fæða vb to feed ASD
fæði n.neut food ASD
Danish: fo(d)er n.neut fodder ASD
föde vb to feed ASD
føde n.masc/fem food ASD
fødsel n birth TLL
Swedish: föda n.fem food ASD
föda vb to feed ASD
födelse n birth SAO
East Germanic  
Gothic: fōdeins n.fem food ASD
fōðer n.neut sheath ASD
fōdjan vb to feed, nourish RPN
Latin: pābulum n.neut food, fodder, nourishment RPN
panarium n.neut bread-basket W7
pānis n.masc bread RPN
pāscō, pāscere, pāstus vb to feed, pasture RPN
pastillus n.masc small loaf, lozenge W7
pastor n.masc shepherd W7
pastus n.masc food W7
satrapes n.masc satrap W7
Vulgar Latin: impastorio, impastoriare vb to embarrass W7
pastoria n.fem hobble W7
Late Latin: companio, companionis n.fem company W7
pastura n.fem pasture W7
Medieval Latin: appāno, appānāre vb to make provisions for AHD
Spanish: pan n.masc bread W7
panada n.fem paste of flour/bread W7
panatela n.fem long thin biscuit W7
Mexican Spanish: panocha n.fem raw sugar W7
Old French: apanage n.masc appanage, inherited goods W7
apaner vb to provide for (younger offspring) W7
bezahar n bezoar AHD
compagnie n.fem company W7
compagnon, compain n.masc companion W7
feurre n fodder AHD
forage n.masc forage W7
forrer vb to fill up with W7
paistre vb to feed W7
pan n.masc bread W7
paneterie n.fem pantry W7
panetier n.masc servant in charge of pantry W7
pastour n.masc pastor W7
repaistre vb to feed W7
repast n.masc repast W7
Middle French: empestrer vb to hobble, embarrass W7
forage n.masc forage W7
forre n.fem looting W7
forrer vb to loot W7
fourrer vb to fill up with W7
paneterie n.fem pantry W7
panier n.masc basket W7
pasture n.fem pasture, tether attached to a horse's foot W7
pasturon n.masc part of horse leg W7
repast n.masc repast W7
French: apanage n.masc appanage, inherited goods W7
fourragère n.fem lanyard, fourragere W7
pastille n.fem flat candy W7
Old Provençal: apanar vb to support W7
Italian: antipasto n.masc antipasto, side dish CID/W7
pasto n food AHD
Greek: pōy n.masc herd W7
satrapēs n.masc satrap W7
Old Persian: khshathra-pāvā n satrap, lit. province-protector AHD
pā vb to protect LRC
Persian: pād vb.ptc protecting (against) AHD/W7
pādzahr n bezoar, lit. poison protector AHD
Sanskrit: pāti vb to protect W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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