Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pā̆k̑-, and pā̆g̑-   'to repair, strengthen'

Semantic Field(s): to Do, Make


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: feng n.masc fang, tusk; prey, loot, spoil, booty IEW
fengel n.masc prince, leader ASD
(ge)fōn, (ge)fēng, (ge)fēngon, (ge)fangen vb.str.VII to take, seize LRC
pāl n.masc pole, stake ASD/W7
Middle English: appesen vb to appease W7
compact adj compact W7
fang n fang W7
newefangel, newfangled adj newfangled W7
pacifien vb to pacify W7
pact n pact W7
padgeant n pageant, lit. scene of play W7
pagan n pagan W7
pagyn n pageant W7
paissaunt n peasant W7
pale n pale W7
palen vb to pale W7
pax n pax W7
payen vb to pay W7
pees n peace W7
pel n pole, stake, stockade W7
pele n peel W7
pole n pole W7
travail n travail W7
travailen vb to travail, journey W7
English: appease vb.trans to calm, bring to state of peace/quiet AHD/W7
Areopagus prop.n Hill of Ares (in Athens) LRC
compact adj made, composed AHD/W7
compact vb to compress, combine, consolidate W7
Fang prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fang n long sharp tooth AHD/W7
Fengel prop.n 15th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
impact vb.trans to fix firmly by packing/wedging AHD/W7
impale vb.trans to surround, enclose with stakes/palisade AHD/W7
impinge vb to strike/dash (esp. via sharp collision) AHD/W7
mastopexy n surgery to lift/reshape breast AHD
newfangled adj attracted to novelty AHD/W7
pace prep with due respect to AHD/W7
pacific adj conciliatory, tending to lessen conflict AHD/W7
pacify vb.trans to allay anger/agitation AHD/W7
pact n agreement AHD/W7
pagan adj/n (re:) heathen AHD/W7
page n leaf of book/tract/similar item AHD/W7
pageant n pretense, mere show AHD/W7
pale n stake, paling, palisade AHD/W7
pale vb.trans to fence, enclose with pales AHD/W7
palette n painter's thin oval/rectangular board/tablet for holding/mixing pigments AHD/W7
palisade n fence of stakes (esp. for defense) AHD/W7
patio n roofless courtyard for dining/recreation AHD
pawl n pivoted tongue/sliding bolt to constrain mechanical motion to one direction AHD/W7
pax n tablet/board decorated with figure/symbol of Christ/saint/Virgin Mary AHD/W7
pay, paid vb.wk to make due return for services rendered/property delivered AHD/W7
peace n state of quiet/tranquillity AHD/W7
peasant n person tilling soil as laborer/small landowner AHD/W7
pectin n water-soluble gel (basis of fruit jelly) in plant tissue AHD/W7
peel n small massive fortified medieval tower AHD/W7
peel n long-handled flat baking tool AHD/W7
pegmatite n coarse granite in dikes/veins AHD/W7
pole n long slender (cylindrical) implement AHD/W7
propagate vb to increase via reproduction AHD/W7
spinto adj re: lyric voice with some dramatic attributes AHD
travail n toil, work (esp. of painful/laborious nature) AHD/W7
travail vb.intrans to toil, labor hard AHD/W7
travel vb to journey, go (as if) on trip/tour AHD/W7
vang n rope used to steady ship's gaff AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fa vb to take, seize ASD
Frisian: fean, fangen vb to take, seize ASD
Dutch: gevangenis n prison TLL
pal n pawl W7
vangen, vaan vb to take, seize ASD
voegen vb to fit, join LRC
Old Saxon: fahan, fangan vb to take, seize ASD
Old High German: fāhan vb to take, seize ASD
fang n.masc fang; booty, seizure IEW
pfāl n pole, stake ASD
Middle High German: vāhen vb to take, seize ASD
German: fangen, fahen vb to take, seize ASD
Fuge n seam, joint LRC
fügen vb to fit, join LRC
Gefängnis n prison TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fá vb to give/receive, put/take; have, make use of LRC
Icelandic: fā, fanga vb to take, seize ASD
páll n pale; hoe, spade ASD
Danish: faa(e) vb to take, seize ASD
fængsel n prison TLL
føje vb to fit, join SAO
Swedish: foga vb to fit, join SAO
få(nga) vb to take, seize ASD
fängelse n prison TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: fahan vb to take, seize ASD
Latin: Areopagus n.masc Areopagus W7
compingo, compingere, compegi, compactus vb to compact, put together W7
impingo, impingere, impegi, impactus vb to impinge, impact, pin to, push against W7
pacifico, pacificare vb to pacify W7
pacificus adj pacific W7
paciscor, pacisci, pactus vb.dep to agree, contract W7
paco, pacāre vb to pacify W7
pactum n.neut pact W7
paganus n.masc country dweller W7
pagina n.fem page W7
pagus n.masc country district W7
pala n.fem spade, shovel W7
palus n.masc pale W7
pango, pangere vb to fix, fasten W7
pax, pacis n.fem peace LRC
propages n.fem slip, offspring W7
propago, propagare, propagavi, propagatus vb to propagate, set slips W7
tripalis adj having three pales/stakes W7
Vulgar Latin: tripalio, tripaliāre vb to torture W7
tropalium n.neut instrument of torture W7
Late Latin: paganus n.masc non-Christian W7
pagensis n.masc inhabitant of district W7
Medieval Latin: impalō, impalāre vb to impale, kill on stake W7
pagina n.fem page W7
Portuguese: pagão adj pagan TLL
pagar vb to pay TLL
trabalho n travail TLL
Spanish: pagano adj pagan TLL
pagar vb to pay TLL
patio n.masc patio, courtyard LRC
trabajo n travail TLL
Old French: apaisier vb to appease W7
paier vb to pay W7
païs n.masc country W7
pais n.fem peace W7
paisant n.masc peasant W7
travail n.masc work, torture W7
traveillier, travaillier, travailler vb to work, torture W7
Anglo-French: pel n.fem pole, stockade W7
Middle French: empaler vb to impale, kill on stake W7
pacifique adj pacific W7
pact n.masc pact W7
page n.fem page W7
paisant n.masc peasant W7
pal n.masc pale W7
pale, pele n.fem spade, shovel W7
paler vb to submit to the pale W7
pel n.masc pale W7
French: palette n.fem flat instrument: spade, shovel, etc. W7
palissade n.fem palisade W7
payen adj pagan TLL
payer vb to pay TLL
pectine n.fem pectin W7
pectique adj containing pectin W7
pegmatite n.fem type of granite W7
travail n travail TLL
Italian: pagano adj pagan TLL
pagare vb to pay TLL
travaglio n travail TLL
Homeric Greek: πάγος n.masc hill, cliff, mountain peak LS
Greek: pēgma, pēgmatos n.neut something fastened together W7
pēgnyw vb to fasten together W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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