Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pā̆n-   'pane, panel, woven fabric'

Semantic Field(s): Cloth


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fana n.masc flag, banner W7
Middle English: pan(e) n pane W7
panel n panel W7
English: pane n side/piece/section of something AHD/W7
panel n pad, cushion, piece of cloth AHD/W2I
vane n device attached to elevated object to show wind direction AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fana, fona n.masc flag, standard ASD
Dutch: vaan n.fem flag, standard ASD
Old Saxon: fano n.masc flag, standard ASD
Old High German: fano n.masc cloth ASD/W7
Middle High German: van(e) n.masc flag, standard ASD
German: Fa(h)ne n.fem flag, standard ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: fāni n.masc flag, standard ASD
Danish: fane n.masc/fem flag, standard ASD
Swedish: fana n.fem flag, standard ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fana n.masc flag, standard ASD
Latin: pannus n.masc cloth, rag W7
Vulgar Latin: pannellus n.masc.dim small piece of cloth W7
Middle French: pan n.masc pane of cloth W7
panel n.masc panel W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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