Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pasto-   'firm, fast, solid'

Semantic Field(s): Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fæst adj fast W7
fæstan vb to fast W7
fæste, feste adv fast LRC
fæstnian, festnian vb.wk to fasten ASD/W7
scamfæst adj shamefaced W7
Middle English: fast adj fast W7
fast(n)en vb to fasten W7
shamefast adj shamefaced W7
English: avast vb.imp stop, cease, hold fast AHD/W7
breakfast n first meal of day AHD/W7
fast adj firm, snug, fixed, bound, secure AHD/W7
fast adv firmly, in fixed manner W7
fast vb.intrans to abstain from food AHD/W7
fasten vb to affix, make fast AHD/W7
Fastred prop.n personal name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Hamfast prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
handfast n.arch contract, covenant AHD/W7
Holfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
shamefaced adj bashful, showing modesty AHD/W7
steadfast adj firmly fixed in place AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fest adj fast ASD
festia vb to fast ASD
festigia vb to fasten ASD
Frisian: fest adj fast ASD
festgjen vb to fasten ASD
Middle Dutch: vast adj/adv fast AHD
Dutch: vast adj fast ASD
vasten vb to fast ASD
vesten vb to fasten ASD
Old Saxon: fast adj fast ASD
fest(i)an vb to fasten ASD
Old High German: fastēn vb to fast ASD
fasti, festi adj fast ASD
fastjan, festan vb to fasten ASD
festinōn vb to fasten W7
Middle High German: vast, veste adj fast ASD
vasten vb to fast ASD
vesten vb to fasten ASD
German: fasten vb to fast ASD
fest adj fast ASD
festen, befestigen vb to fasten ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fastr adj fast; hard, severe; continuous LRC
Icelandic: fasta vb to fast ASD
festa vb to fasten ASD
Danish: fast adj fast ASD
faste vb to fast ASD
fæaste vb to fasten ASD
Swedish: fast adj fast ASD
fasta vb to fast ASD
fästa vb to fasten ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fastan vb to fast, fasten ASD
Armenian: hast adj fast HH/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
imp=imperative (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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