Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: paus-   'to free, let loose'

Semantic Field(s): Free (adj), to Release


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: pause n pause W7
posen vb to pose W7
reposen vb to repose W7
English: compose vb to fashion, form by putting together AHD/W7
diapause n period of spontaneous dormancy AHD/W7
pause n temporary stop AHD/W7
pause vb to stop/rest temporarily W7
pesade n act/position of horse rearing on hind legs AHD
posada n inn, hotel AHD/W7
pose vb to put/set in place AHD/W7
repose vb to lie/lay at rest AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Pause n.fem pause LRC
Latin: compono, componere vb to place, arrange W7
pausa n.fem pause, cessation W7
Late Latin: pauso, pausāre vb to pause W7
repauso, repausāre vb to stop, repose W7
Portuguese: pão n bread TLL
Spanish: posada n.fem inn, hotel W7
posar vb to lodge W7
Old French: reposer vb to repose W7
Middle French: composer vb to compose W7
poser vb to pose W7
French: pain n bread TLL
Italian: pane n bread TLL
Homeric Greek: παυσωλή n pause, rest, cessation LRC
παύω vb to pause, cease, leave off LRC
Greek: diapauein vb to pause W7
diapausis n.fem diapause W7
paula n.fem rest W7
pausis n.fem pause, cessation W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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