Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d-   'foot'

Semantic Field(s): Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bær-fōt adj barefoot MEV
fecc(e)an, fæccan vb.wk to fetch ASD/W7
feti(g)an, fetigean vb.wk to fetch ASD/W7
fōt n.masc foot LRC
trefet n trivet W7
Middle English: antipodes antipodes, those with feet opposite ours AHD
barfot adj barefoot MEV
empechen vb to impeach W7
empeiren vb to impair W7
fecchen vb to fetch W7
feter n fetter W7
fetlak n fetlock W7
fitlok n fetlock W7
fot n foot W7
paun n pawn W7
pewe n pew W7
trevet n trivet W7
vampe n sock W7
English: antipodes direct/diametrical opposites AHD
apodal adj having no feet/analogous appendages AHD/W7
appoggiatura n embellishing note/tone preceding essential melodic note/tone AHD/W7
barefoot adj/adv unshod, without footwear W7
cypripedium n leafy-stemmed terrestrial orchid AHD/W7
diapedesis n blood cell passage through capillaries into tissues AHD/W7
expedite vb.trans to execute promptly AHD/W7
fetch vb to go/come after and bring/take back AHD/W7
fetlock n projection bearing hair tuft on back of leg above hoof (of horse) AHD/W7
fetter n chain/shackle for foot/feet AHD/W7
Firefoot prop.n Eomer's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
foot, feet n.str end(s) of vertebrate leg(s) upon which individual stands AHD/W7
footpad n one who robs pedestrians AHD/W7
Harfoots hobbit tribe in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
impair vb.trans to damage, diminish in value/strength/quantity AHD/W7
impeach vb.trans to bring accusation against AHD/W7
impeccable adj not able/liable to sin AHD/W7
impede vb.trans to block, interfere with progress of AHD/W7
Lightfoot prop.n Snowmane's dam in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lycopodium n erect/creeping club moss AHD/W7
millipede n myriopod having cylindrical segmented body AHD/W7
monopodium n (plant with) single main axis of growth AHD
octopus n 8-armed cephalopod mollusk AHD/W7
Oedipus prop.n man who unwittingly killed his father and married his mother (Greek mythology) LRC
pada n foot: Sanskrit poetic metric unit AHD
paisa n SE Asian currency unit AHD
pajama(s) n loose lightweight trousers AHD/W7
parallelepiped n prism with parallelogram bases AHD/W7
pawn n something delivered/deposited as security for loan AHD/W7
peccadillo n slight offense AHD/W7
peccant adj sinful, guilty of moral offense AHD/W7
peccavi n acknowledgment of sin AHD/W7
-ped n.sfx foot AHD/W7
pedal adj re: foot AHD/W7
pedal n lever acted on by foot AHD/W7
pedate adj having a foot AHD/W7
pedestrian adj afoot, walking, going on foot AHD/OED
pedestrian n walker, one going on foot W7
pedicel n slender plant stalk AHD/W7
pedicure n cosmetic care of feet/toenails AHD
peduncle n stalk bearing flower (cluster) AHD/W7
pejoration n process/condition of worsening/degenerating AHD
pelecypod adj re: hatchet-shaped foot AHD/CDC
pelecypod n bivalve mollusk: clam, scallop, oyster AHD
peon n footman, foot-soldier AHD/W7
pes n distal segment of vertebrate hind limb AHD/W7
pessimism n inclination to emphasize adversity AHD/W7
pew n compartment (in church) with several seats AHD/W7
phalarope n small shore bird resembling sandpiper AHD/W7
pie n early monetary unit of India/Pakistan AHD/W7
pilot n helmsman, one who steers ship AHD/W7
pioneer n member of military unit of construction engineers AHD/W7
platypus n small aquatic oviparous mammal AHD/W7
-pod n.sfx (part resembling) foot AHD/W7
podiatry n chiropody AHD/W7
podite n segment of arthropod limb AHD
podium n pedestal, elevated platform AHD
podophyllin n bitter resin from May apple root AHD
podzol n leached soil under cool humid vegetation AHD
polyp n coelenterate having typically hollow cylindrical body AHD/W7
polypod adj having many feet AHD
Proudfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pseudopod n cellular membrane extension with which some cells/organisms move TLL
Puddifoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pug n footprint AHD/W7
rhizopus n mold fungus causing decay AHD/W7
scaphopod n/adj tooth-shell mollusk; having foot fit for burrowing AHD
sesquipedal adj sesquipedalian AHD
sesquipedalian adj one and a half feet tall/long AHD
sympodium n primary stem/axis developed from short lateral branches AHD
teapoy n 3-legged ornamental stand AHD/W7
theropod n large carnivorous saurischian dinosaur AHD
trapezium n quadrilateral with no parallel sides AHD/W7
tripedal adj having 3 feet AHD
trivet n tripod, 3-legged stand AHD/W7
vamp n part of shoe/boot-upper covering forepart of foot AHD/W7
Whitfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Wingfoot prop.n man a.k.a. Strider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
xenopus n aquatic tongueless clawed frog AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: faka vb to fetch, prepare, make ready ASD
fot n.masc foot ASD
Frisian: foet n.masc foot ASD
Dutch: veter n lace TLL
voet n.masc foot ASD
Old Saxon: fōt, fuot n.masc foot ASD
Low German: voot n.masc foot ASD
Old High German: fuoz n.masc foot ASD
Middle High German: vuoz n.masc foot ASD
German: Fuß n.masc foot LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: feta vb to step, proceed in LRC
fótr n.masc foot; leg LRC
Icelandic: fōtr n.masc foot ASD
Danish: fod n.masc/fem foot ASD
Swedish: fot n.masc foot ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fōtus n.str.masc foot LRC
Umbrian: persom-e n ground RPN
peřum n ground RPN
Latin: antipodes people having feet opposite ours AHD
expedio, expedire vb to arrange, replace, set free W7
expeditus vb.ptc arranged, replaced, set free W7
impeccabilis adj incapable of fault W7
impedio, impedīre vb to impede W7
millepeda n.fem small crawling animal W7
Oedipus n.masc Oedipus W7
oppidum, oppidi n.neut city LRC
peccāns, peccāntis vb.ptc sinning, making a mistake W7
peccatum n.neut sin, mistake W7
peccō, peccāre, peccāvī, peccātum vb to sin, stumble, commit a fault W7
pedalis adj re: feet W7
pedatus adj ill set on his feet W7
pedes n.masc pedestrian W7
pedester, pedestris, pedestre adj pedestrian W7
pedica n.fem trap, fetter W7
pediculus n.masc.dim little foot W7
pēs, pedis n.masc foot RPN
pessimus adj.sup worst W7
podium n.neut podium, parapet W7
polypus n.masc polyp, octopus W7
tripes, tripedis adj three-footed W7
Late Latin: Cypris prop.n.fem Venus W7
impedico, impedicāre vb to fetter W7
pejoro, pejorāre vb to make worse W7
Medieval Latin: pedo n.masc peon W7
New Latin: cypripedium n.neut Lady's Slipper (orchid), lit. sandal of Venus W7
diapedesis n.fem oozing through W7
lycopodium n.neut (genus name) W7
Octopus n.masc (genus name) W7
pedicellus n.masc.dim little foot W7
pedunculus n.masc peduncle W7
phalaropus n.masc small shorebird W7
platypus n.masc small aquatic mammal W7
rhizopus n.masc (genus of) mold fungi W7
trapezium n.neut small table W7
Portuguese: pé n foot TLL
peão n.masc peon W7
Spanish: pecadillo n.masc.dim small sin, unimportant thing W7
pecado n.masc sin W7
pie n foot TLL
Old French: avantpié n.masc fore foot W7
peon n.masc peon W7
peonier n.masc peon W7
Middle French: empeechier vb to hinder W7
empeirer vb to make worse W7
pan n.masc pane of cloth W7
pédale n.fem pedal W7
pilote n.masc pilot (of ship) W7
pionier n.masc peon, settler W7
polype n.masc octopus, nasal tumor W7
puie n.fem balustrade W7
French: pessimisme n.masc pessimism W7
phalarope n.masc small shorebird W7
pied n foot TLL
pion n.masc peon W7
Italian: appoggiare vb to lean on AHD
appoggiatura n.fem leaning, resting CID/W7
pedale n.masc pedal W7
piede n foot TLL
pilòta n.masc pilot W7
Lithuanian: pãdas n shoe, sole of foot LRC
pėsčias, pėsčià adj on foot LRC
Latvian: acupedius adj swift-footed LRC
Old Church Slavonic: pasti, padǫ, padeši vb to fall LRC
pods n ground LRC
Homeric Greek: πούς, ποδός n.masc foot LRC
Greek: antipous adj with feet opposite AHD
apous adj without feet W7
diapēdan vb to ooze through W7
diapēdēsis n.fem act of oozing through W7
epipedon n.neut plane surface W7
epipedos adj flat W7
Oidipous n.masc Oedipus W7
parallēlepipedon n.neut 6-faced polygon of parallelograms W7
parallēlos adj parallel W7
pedilon n.neut sandal W7
πέδον n.neut ground, earth RPN
peza n.fem ankle W7
pēda steering oars W7
pēdan vb to leap W7
pēdon n.neut oar W7
platypous adj flat-footed W7
podion n.neut base, little foot W7
polypous n.masc polyp, octopus W7
ποῦς n.masc foot LRC
trapeza n.fem table W7
trapezion n.neut small table W7
phalaris n.fem coot W7
phalios adj with white spot W7
Medieval Greek: pēdōtēs n.masc ship's pilot W7
Luwian: pa-ta-aš n foot RPN
pati- n foot LRC
Lycian: pddãt- n place RPN
pddẽn- n place, precinct RPN
Hittite: pata- n foot LRC
pí-e-da-an n place RPN
Classical Armenian: otn n foot LRC
Persian: pā n leg W7
Avestan: pad- n foot LRC
Sanskrit: padám n step, track, spot RPN
pā́t n foot RPN
pādikā n quarter W7
Hindi: tipaī n three-legged ornamental stand W7
pag n foot W7
pāī n former monetary unit of India W7
pājāma n pajamas W7
Tocharian B: ptsa n foot LRC
Tocharian A: päts n foot LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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