Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: peg- : pog- : pōg-, pō̆k-s-   'hip, side, shoulder'

Semantic Field(s): Side, Shoulder


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: expectorate vb to eject from lungs/throat by coughing/hawking/spitting AHD/W7
parapet n breastwork, wall/rampart/elevation of earth/stone to protect soldiers AHD/W7
pectoral adj re: chest AHD/W7
punka n fan, moving frond/cloth hung from ceiling AHD
Latin: expectoratus vb.ptc cast out of mind W7
expectoro, expectorāre vb to cast out of mind W7
paro, parare vb to prepare, acquire W7
pectoralis adj re: the breast W7
pectus, pectoris n.neut breast; heart, mind LRC
Middle French: pectoral adj re: the breast W7
Italian: parapètto n.masc parapet W7
parare vb to shield W7
Tocharian A: päśśäm n the two breasts W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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