Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. peis-, speis-   'to blow, fizz'

Semantic Field(s): to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: *fīstan vb to fist OED
fisting n fist IEW
Middle English: fiesten vb to fist OED
spirit n spirit W7
English: fist n.obs fart, stink, foul smell OED
fist vb.obs to fart, break wind OED
fizz vb to hiss, whiz, sputter, effervesce W7
fizzle vb to fizz; fail/end feebly AHD/W7
spirit n vital/animating life principle W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: veest n fist OED
Dutch: veest n fist IEW
veesten, vijsten vb to fist OED
vijst n fist OED
Middle High German: vīsen, visten vb to fist IEW
vist n fist IEW
German: fispern, fispeln vb to fizz IEW
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fīsa vb to fist W7/IEW
Norwegian: fisa vb to fist, blow IEW
Danish: fise vb to fist OED
Latin: spīritus n.masc breath, soul, spirit IEW
spīro, spīrare vb to blow, breathe IEW
Old French: spirit n spirit W7
Old Church Slavonic: piskati vb to hiss, wheeze, whistle IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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