Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: peisk-, pisk-   'fish'

Semantic Field(s): Fish (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: iasg, iasc n.masc fish ASD
Gaelic: iasg, ēisg n.masc fish ASD
Cornish: pesc, pise, pysc n.masc fish ASD
Welsh: pysg n.masc fish ASD
Old English: fisc n.masc fish ASD
Middle English: fish n fish W7
grapay n grampus W7
graspey n grampus W7
piscarie n piscary W7
Pisces prop.n Pisces W7
porpoys n porpoise W7
English: fish n aquatic vertibrate animal AHD/W7
grampus n small cetacean AHD/W7
lut(e)fisk n traditional Scandinavian fish gelatin AHD/W2I
piscary n fishery AHD/W7
piscatorial adj re: fish/fishing AHD
piscatory adj re: fishing/fishermen W7
Pisces prop.n zodiacal constellation AHD/W7
pisci- pfx re: fish AHD
piscina n basin with drain near church altar AHD/W7
piscine adj re: fish AHD/W7
porpoise n small gregarious toothed whale AHD/W7
repechage n additional trial heat (in rowing) AHD
weakfish n marine percoid food fish AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fisk n fish ASD
Frisian: fisck n fish ASD
Dutch: vis(ch) n.masc fish ASD/W7
walvisch n whale TLL
weekvis n weakfish W7
Old Saxon: fisc, visc n.masc fish ASD
Low German: fisk n.masc fish ASD
Old High German: fisc n.masc fish ASD
Middle High German: visch n.masc fish ASD
German: Fisch n.masc fish ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: fiskr n.masc fish ASD
Norwegian: lutfisk n lutfisk, lit. lye-fish W2I
Danish: fisk n.masc/fem fish ASD
Swedish: fisk n.masc fish ASD
lutfisk n lutfisk, lit. lye-fish W2I
East Germanic  
Gothic: fisks n.str.masc fish LRC
Crimean Gothic: *fisch, fisct n fish CGo
Latin: piscarius adj re: fish W7
Pisces Pisces, lit. Fish W7
piscina n.fem fish-pond W7
piscis n.masc fish W7
Medieval Latin: piscaria n.fem fishery W7
piscina n.fem fish-pond, swimming pool W7
porcopiscis n.fem porpoise W7
Middle French: graspeis n.masc grampus W7
porpois n.masc porpoise W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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