Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3b. pel-, pelə-, plē-   'to wrap, cover; cloth; fell, pelt'

Semantic Field(s): to Wind, Wrap, to Cover, Cloth, Skin, Hide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: peall n.masc couch, covering W7
pillion n.fem couch, covering W7
pillīn n.fem pack-saddle IED/W7
Scots Gaelic: peall n.masc couch, covering W7
pillean, pillion n.masc cushion GE/W7
Old English: fēlan, fiolan vb.str.III to stick, adhere; reach, penetrate ASD
fel(l) n.neut fell, fur RPN
fēolan, fealh, fulgon, folen vb.str.III to stick, adhere; reach, penetrate LRC
film(en), fylmen n.neut film RPN
Middle English: erisipila n erysipelas W7
fell n fell W7
filme n film W7
pelt n pelt W7
peltry n peltry W7
surplis n surplice W7
English: erysipelas n acute febrile disease caused by hemolytic streptococcus AHD/W7
fell n hide, skin, pelt AHD/W7
film n pellicle, thin skin/membranous covering AHD/W7
Hasufel prop.n Aragorn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
microfilm n photographic record of reduced-size image(s) W7
pelisse n long coat/cloak made/lined/trimmed with fur AHD/W7
pellicle n thin skin/film AHD/W7
pelt n (animal) skin/hide with hair/wool/fur AHD/W7
peltate adj shield-shaped AHD/W7
peltry n furs, pelts AHD/W7
pillion n light saddle for women AHD/W7
surplice n loose white knee-length outer vestment worn by clergymen AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bi-fella vb to conceal, commit RPN
fel n.neut fell ASD
Dutch: pels n pelt, fur TLL
vel n.neut fell ASD
Old Saxon: fel n.neut fell ASD
Old High German: fel n.neut fell RPN
Middle High German: vël n.neut fell ASD
German: Fell n.neut fell ASD
Pelz n pelt, fur TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fela vb to hide; commend, make over LRC
Old Icelandic: fjall n.neut fell RPN
fylgsni n hiding-place RPN
Icelandic: fell n.neut fell ASD
Danish: pels n pelt, fur TLL
Swedish: päls n pelt, fur TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: filhan vb to bury, conceal RPN
fill n.neut fell ASD
Latin: palla n garment worn by women of Rome RPN
pallium n cover, covering RPN
pallula n small cloak/mantle RPN
pellicius adj made of pelt(s) W7
pellicula n.fem small fell/pelt W7
pellis, pellis n.fem fell/pelt LRC
pelta n.fem small shield (made of hide) W7
Late Latin: pellicia n.fem pelisse W7
pellicius adj made of skin W7
Medieval Latin: pellicium n.neut coat of skins W7
pellicula n.fem pellicle W7
superpellicium n.neut surplice W7
New Latin: peltatus vb.ptc armed with shield W7
Old French: surpliz n.masc surplice W7
Anglo-French: pelterie n.fem fell, fur W7
Middle French: pellicule n.fem pellicle, film W7
French: pelisse n.fem type of fur coat W7
Old Prussian: pelkis n cloak RPN
Lithuanian: plėvė̃ n membrane RPN
Russian: pleva n membrane RPN
Greek: erysipelas adj red skinned W7
-pelas afx fell W7
πέλλα n.fem fell, leather ASD
πελλοράφος n sewing skins together RPN
πέλμα n sole (of foot/shoe) RPN
pelma n.neut sole of the foot W7
peltē n.fem small shield (made of hide) W7
ῥάπτω vb to sew together RPN
Sanskrit: paṭa-ḥ n cloth, garment, blanket RPN
paṭála-m n veil, cover RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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