Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3a. pel-   'to fold'

Semantic Field(s): to Fold


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: -feald sfx -fold W7
fealdan vb to fold, wrap W7
fēlan vb.wk to feel ASD/W7
manig-feald adj manifold W7
Middle English: felen vb to feel W7
-fold sfx -fold W7
folden vb to fold W7
manifold adj manifold W7
multiplien vb to multiply W7
triple adj/n triple W7
triplen vb to triple W7
English: -blastic sfx having germ layer(s) AHD/W7
decuple adj tenfold, having 10 units/members AHD/W7
double adj having 2 units/members LRC
double vb to make doubly great/many AHD/W7
eightfold adj 8 times the number/quantity AHD
faldstool n folding stool/chair AHD/W7
faltboat n small folding boat/collapsible canoe AHD/W7
fauteuil n upholstered armchair with open sides AHD
feel, felt vb.str to touch with tactile sensation AHD/W7
-fold sfx times, multiplied by AHD/W7
fold vb to lay/bend one part over another AHD/W7
fourfold adj quadruple, 4 times the number/quantity LRC
furbelow n ruffle, pleated/gathered material AHD/W7
manifold adj lit. many-fold W7
multiple adj more than one AHD/W7
multiply vb to increase in number W7
quadruple adj having 4 units/members AHD/W7
quintuple adj having 5 units/members AHD/W7
septuple adj having 7 units/members AHD
sextuple adj having 6 units/members AHD/W7
threefold adj triple, 3 times the number/quantity W7
triple adj having 3 units/members AHD/W7
triple n threefold sum/number/quantity AHD/W7
triple vb to make triply great/many AHD/W7
triploblastic adj having 3 primary germ layers AHD/W7
twofold adj double, 2 times the number/quantity LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: -fald sfx -fold ASD
fēla vb to feel ASD
Frisian: fielen vb to feel ASD
Dutch: voelen vb to feel ASD
vouwen vb to fold ASD
Old Saxon: -fald sfx -fold ASD
gi-fōlian vb to feel ASD
manag-fald adj manifold, multiplex ASD
Low German: fölen vb to feel ASD
Old High German: faldan vb to fold W7
-falt sfx -fold W7
faltistuol n folding chair W7
fuolēn, fuoljan vb to feel ASD
manag-fald adj manifold, multiplex ASD
Middle High German: valden, valten vb to fold ASD
-valt sfx -fold ASD
vüelen vb to feel ASD
German: faltboot n folding boat W7
falten vb to fold W7
fühlen vb to feel ASD
mannigfaltig adj manifold, multiplex LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: feldr n.masc cloak LRC
Icelandic: falda vb to fold ASD
Danish: folde vb to fold ASD
föle vb to feel ASD
involde n intestines TLL
Swedish: fålla vb to fold ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: falþan vb to fold ASD
-falþs sfx -fold ASD
manag-falþs adj manifold ASD
Latin: multiplex adj multiple, manifold W7
-plex sfx -fold W7
-plus sfx multiplied by W7
quadruplus adj quadruple W7
triplus adj triple W7
Late Latin: decuplus adj decuple W7
quintuplex adj multiplied by 5 W7
triplo, triplāre vb to triple W7
Medieval Latin: sextuplus adj sextuple W7
Old French: multiplier vb to multiply W7
Middle French: décuple adj decuple W7
quadruple adj quadruple W7
quintuple adj quintuple W7
triple adj triple W7
French: décupler vb to multiply by 10 W7
multiple adj multiple, manifold W7
Greek: diplasios adj twofold W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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