Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: pelə-, plā-   'plane, flat, wide, broad'

Semantic Field(s): Flat, Wide, Broad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: lám n hand, arm RPN
Welsh: llawr n.masc floor ASD
llydan adj wide, broad RPN
Old English: fe(a)ld n.masc field, plain, pasture ASD
flōr n.masc floor, pavement ASD
folde n.fem earth, ground; land, country, district LRC
folm(e) n.fem palm (of hand) RPN
palm, pælme n.masc/fem palm (tree) ASD
palm-æppel n date, lit. palm-apple ASD
palm-treōw n palm-tree ASD
plaster n plaster W7
Middle English: afelde adv to the fields MEV
explanen vb to explain W7
feld(e), filde n field MEV
field n field W7
flor n floor W7
palm n palm (tree) W7
paume n palm (of hand) W7
plain n plain W7
plainen vb to plain W7
plane n plane W7
planete n planet W7
plaster n plaster W7
English: aplanatic adj free from/corrected for spherical aberration AHD/W7
Barrowfield prop.n Rohan cemetery in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Bridgefields prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dysplasia n abnormal cell/organ/tissue growth/development AHD
Eastfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
esplanade n open stretch of level paved/grassy ground AHD/W7
explain vb to make plain/understandable AHD/W7
feldspar n crystalline mineral: aluminum silicates with barium/calcium/sodium/potassium AHD/W7
field n open land area sans woods/buildings AHD/W7
Firienfeld prop.n Dunharrow meadow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
flaneur n aimless person AHD/W7
floor n part of room where one stands AHD/W7
Folde prop.n area of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greenfields prop.n Shire battle locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
metaplasm n alteration of text w.r.t. letters/syllables/words AHD/W7
palm n (sub)tropical monocotyledonous tree/shrub/vine AHD/W7
palmary adj best, outstanding AHD/W7
piano adv softly, quietly (in music) AHD/W7
piano n musical instrument in percussive group CDC
pianoforte n piano AHD
plain n level/rolling treeless countryside AHD/W7
plain vb.intrans to complain AHD/W7
planarian n small soft-bodied ciliated aquatic turbellarian worm AHD/W7
plane adj flat, having no elevations/depressions AHD/W7
plane n flat surface: straight lines joining points lie wholly in surface AHD/W7
plane n tool for shaping/smoothing wood surface AHD/W7
plane vb.intrans to soar on wings AHD/W7
plane vb.trans to level, make flat/smooth/even AHD/W7
planet n heavenly body (Mercury, Venus, Earth, etc.) revolving around Sol AHD/W7
planish vb.trans to make plane/smooth AHD/W7
planula n free-swimming ciliated coelenterate larva AHD/W7
-plasia n.sfx formation, development AHD/W7
plasma n green faintly translucent quartz AHD/W7
plasmodesma n cytoplasm strand connecting plant cells AHD
-plast n.sfx cell, organized granule/particle AHD/W7
plaster n medicinal preparation stiffer than ointment AHD/W7
plastic adj creative, formative AHD/W7
plastid n body of specialized protoplasm in cell cytoplasm AHD/W7
-plasty n.sfx plastic surgery AHD/W7
Polack prop.n Polish man LRC
polka n vivacious Bohemian dance (for couples) AHD/W7
polynya n open water area in sea ice AHD/W7
protoplasm n living content of cell TLL
tonoplast n vacuolar membrane AHD
toxoplasma n parasitic sporozoan AHD
veld(t) n S African grassland AHD/W7
Westfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: f(i)eld n field ASD
Frisian: fjild n field ASD
Middle Dutch: veld n field W7
Dutch: plein n town square TLL
veld n.neut field ASD
vloer n.masc floor ASD
Afrikaans: veld n veldt, field W7
Old Saxon: feld n.masc field ASD
folda n.fem field, earth ASD
folmōs the hands ASD
palma n palm (tree) ASD
Low German: floor n.masc floor ASD
Old High German: feld n.neut field ASD
fluor, flūr n field, meadow ASD/W7
folma n.fem palm (of hand) ASD/RPN
palma n palm (tree) W7
pflastar n.neut plaster ASD
Middle High German: velt n.neut field ASD
vluor n.masc field ASD
German: Feld n.neut field W7
Feldspat(h) n.masc feldspar W7
Flur n.fem field; floor ASD
Palme n.fem palm (tree) LRC
Pflaster n.neut plaster TLL
Plasma n.neut plasma W7
Plastid n plastid W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: flana vb to rush around W7
fold n.fem field, earth, world LRC
Icelandic: fālma vb to grope about ASD
flōr n.masc floor, pavement ASD
fold n.fem field, earth ASD
pālmr n palm (tree) ASD
Danish: famle vb to grope ASD
fælled n.masc/fem field ASD
Swedish: famla vb to grope ASD
fält n.neut field ASD
Latin: emplastrum n.neut cast W7
explano, explanare vb to make level W7
metaplasmus n.masc transformation W7
palma n.fem palm (of hand); palm-tree RPN
palmarius adj deserving the palm W7
palmus n.masc measure of length (palm of hand) W7
plango, plangere vb to beat, strike W7
planum adj flat W7
planum n.neut plain, flat ground W7
plānus adj even, level, flat, plane RPN
plasticus adj of molding W7
Late Latin: plana n.fem tool for leveling W7
planeta n.fem planet W7
plano, planāre vb to level W7
planus adj smooth W7
plasma n.neut something molded W7
-plastus sfx molding, shaping W7
New Latin: planula n.fem (type of) larva W7
-plasia sfx formation, development W7
plasma n.neut blood component W7
Old French: plain adj flat W7
planète n.fem planet W7
Middle French: paume n.fem palm (of hand) W7
plaindre vb to complain W7
plan adj level W7
planir vb to level W7
-plaste sfx molded W7
French: esplanade n.fem esplanade, public place W7
flâneur n.masc idler, lazy person W7
plan adj plane W7
planer vb to plane, glide in air W7
planeur n.masc glider W7
-plastie sfx molding, shaping W7
Italian: piano adj soft, plain, level W7
spianare vb to level W7
spianata n.fem esplanade W7
Lithuanian: plónas adj thin RPN
plóstas n expanse, space RPN
Russian: polyn n polynya W7
Homeric Greek: πλανάομαι vb to rove, wander LRC
Greek: emplassein vb to plaster on W7
emplastron n.neut cast W7
καταπλάσσω vb to plaster over LRC
καταπλαστύς n.fem plaster LRC
metaplasmos n.masc transformation W7
metaplassein vb to remold W7
παλάμη n (palm of) hand RPN
planasthai vb to wander W7
planēs n.masc wanderer W7
planēt- stem wanderer W7
plasis n.fem molding W7
plasma n.neut something molded W7
plassein vb to mold W7
-plastēs afx molder, forger W7
plastikos adj of molding W7
plastos adj formed, molded W7
πλάττω vb to mold, shape LRC
Late Greek: -plastia afx molding W7
Hittite: pal-h̯i-iš adj broad RPN
Sanskrit: pṛthú-ḥ adj wide, broad RPN
práthati vb to spread, to extend RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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